被动语态

当一个英语句子中至少包含“主语,谓语,和宾语”三者时,我们就可以选择用不同的“语态”来表达相同的语意。语态是用以表示主语谓语关系的一种形式,在语法上可以分为“主动语态”和“被动语态”两种。主动语态的句子我们已经很熟悉,例如:

Jack’s behavior troubled me. (杰克的行为困扰了我) 

例句的主语是Jack’s behavior,这个句子是以Jack’s behavior为主角来叙述关于trouble的事情的。如果我们想以me为主角来叙述关于trouble的事情,那么就应该将句子改为被动语态,例如:

I was troubled(by Jack’s behavior).(我被杰克的行为所困扰)

例句中was troubled就是被动语态的写法,表示“被困扰”。如果需要交代主语Jack’s behavior的话,则必须放在介宾短语by Jack’s behavior中,表示“被什么困扰”。

一般来说,及物动词充当谓语动词的句子都可以有被动语态,例如:

Jack kicked the dog off the building.
The dog was kicked off the building by Jack.

The question caused James to ask his teacher.
James was caused to ask his teacher by the question.
The question caused his teacher to be asked by James.

I give you a book.
You are given a book by me.

斜体部分均为被动语态。

作者:毕出 更新时间:2016-06-10 15:47

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