代词

严格来讲,代词应该属于名词一类,因为它是用来代替名词以避免重复的一种词类。例如:

Although Harry, Ron, and Joyce are fictional, they come to life in the book.

例句中,they指代Harry, Ron, and Joyce。在GMAT考试中,为了看懂每个选项,当我们碰到代词时,一定要首先找到其指代的对象(当然也可以顺便检查代词用法是否正确)。

由于代词也称为代名词,所以它只能指代一个名词或与该名词等价的内容(例如从句),而不能指代一个完整句。例如:

Wrong:**James scored high in GMAT, and it impressed me.

例句中的it指代了score这个句子,所以这个句子在语法上是错误的。

 

代词与所指对象的人称需要一致

代词只有和所指对象保持人称的一致才能完成指代,例如:

**John won prizes for his great contributions, but it refused to inscribe his name on the medal.

例句中的John是一个人,而it只能指代物品,不能指代人(John),这句话在语法上是错误的。这个句子可以更正为:

John won prizes for his great contributions, but he refused to inscribe his name on the medal.

 

代词与所指对象的单复数需要一致

与名词相同,代词也有单复数之分。当我们试图指代前文中出现过的“物品”时,我们需要选择用it来指代单数物品,用they/them来指代复数物品。例如:

**The concretion of sand and limestone encasing the iron anchor is likely to hold a precious object, but to bring them out will take archaeologists four or five years.

由于代词them是复数,而其合理的所指对象object为单数,所以这里不能完成指代。例句可以更正为:

The concretion of sand and limestone encasing the iron anchor is likely to hold a precious object, but to bring it out will take archaeologists four or five years.

 

代词必须有一个所指对象

因为代词的功能是代替名词出现以避免重复,所以它必须有一个被代替的名词。例如:

** Although the new regulations allow them to do it, high school graduates seldom go abroad for higher education.

代词it 必须有一个所指对象,而且这个所指对象必须是名词。但是整句话中找不到是什么所指对象,从语意上判断的it应该代表的是high school graduates seldom go abroad for higher education,这个部分是一个句子而非名词,所以不能使用代词it 来指代。例句可以更正为:

Although the new regulations allow them to do so, high school graduates seldom go abroad for higher education.

将do it改成 do so,没有了代词、变成助动词do 加上副词so,代表的就是后面的go abroad for higher education 这个部分。

 

代词的所指对象需要尽量是名词词组的核心词

这是一个次级规则,所以我们说“尽量”。在英语句子中,名词经常以一个词组甚至更复杂的形式出现,例如:

**New York's city government passed new laws to regulate the student loan for its eight million residents.

例句中New York's city government是一个词组,因为New York和city都是government的定语,所以这个词组的核心词是government。代词its的所指对象从语意上看应该是“纽约市(New York)”,但是“纽约市”处于所有格结构中,所以its不能指代“纽约市”,更为正确的句子是:

New York's city government passed new laws to regulate the student loan for the city’s eight million residents.

由于本条是次级规则,所以我们不能仅仅因为某个选项违反了本条规则就直接下必杀令,还需要检查其它的错误。

 

代词只能有一个所指对象

代词必须指代一个名词。若某个代词可以指代一个以上的名词,则其会引起歧义,造成语法错误。例如:

**When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals thought they were very lucky people.

这个句子不好,因为它没把话讲清楚。代词they 有两个可能的先行词:tourists 和the locals,这会造成模棱两可,产生歧义。更为正确的句子是:

When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals thought these outsiders were very lucky people.
When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals considered themselves very lucky people.

请注意,我们并没有说有代词的句子只能有一个和该代词单复数一样名词。只要我们能通过语意轻松地确定每一个代词的所指对象,那么这个代词的身前或身后有多少个与其单复数一样的名词都无所谓,例如:

People play computer games, and they are friendly.

虽然代词身前有两个复数名词—people和computer games,但是由于只有人才能友好,所以代词they肯定指代people,例句是正确的。

 

指示代词:that/those

指示代词通常在“比较”结构中出现,其表示所指代的所指对象的一个新的副本(new copy),而并非是原来的所指对象。例如:

The money spent by James is more than that spent by his brother.

例句中that指代the money,只不过此the money非彼the money。这是两个部分的钱,一个部分是被詹姆斯花的钱,另外一个部分是被他的哥哥花的钱。如果用一般代词(it/they)来指代,则必须是同一个部分的钱,例如:

The money spent by James is more than it spent by his brother.

这个例句的意思是:“詹姆斯花的钱比他哥哥花的詹姆斯花的钱多”。

指示代词的指代也要保证“数的一致”,例如:

**Fish eyes are very different from that of a mammal.
Fish eyes are very different from those of a mammal.

由于eyes是复数,所以只有用those指代才是正确的。

 

少数代词

反身代词

反身代词包括itself, themselves, himself等等。通过反身代词指代主语,施动者把动作在形式上反射回自己。因此,反身代词与它所指代的名词或代词形成互指关系,在人称、性质、数上保持一致。比如:我自己、你自己、他自己、我们自己……等等,其和一般代词有明显区别。例如:

**Frank has a right to decide for him.
Frank has a right to decide for himself.

一般代词(him)指代未在例句中出现的男人,而反身代词(himself)则指代句中主语(Frank)。

 

相互代词

英语中的相互代词只有两个:each other和one another。相互代词主要表达两者之间的交互,一定要注意这两个词和反身代词的区别。例如:

(1) We often help ourselves in our lessons.
(2) We often help each other in our lessons.

句(1)表示我们帮助自己,而句(2)表示我们之中的每个个体互相帮助。

 

One

one在英语中多指复数名词中的某一个,例如:

After walking by the chocolates so many times, Jack finally ate one.

例句中的one指代“巧克力(the chocolates)”中的某一个个体,而非全部的巧克力。

 

Do so/Do it

Do so可以指代前文中描述的整个动作,而Do it中的it则只能指代前文中出现过的一个名词。例如:

** Frank plays cards in the garden, and Mary will do it too.
Frank plays cards in the garden, and Mary will do so too.

it只能指代garden,显然不符合逻辑;so则可以指代play cards这个的动作,符合逻辑。

 

形式主语

当主语是不定式动名词、或者从句时,对句子进行倒装可以避免由于主语过长而引发的“不美观”。倒装的方式是将原句中的主语后置,并且在原主语位置上添加it占位。例如:

It is my pleasure to address the meeting. (不定式)
To address the meeting is my pleasure.

It is no good reading in dim light. (动名词)
Reading in dim light is no good.

It is extremely obvious that she has been lying about her identity. (从句)
That she has been lying about her identity is extremely obvious.

以上三组例句中的每个句子均没有语意上的区别,在GMAT考试中也无优劣可言,仅仅是一种在语形上的变化。当然,形式主语也可以用于使役动词的身后,例如:

Cherry made it possible to attend the meeting.
Cherry made to attend the meeting possible.
Cherry made possible to attend the meeting.

这个三个例句在语意上也完全相等。

作者:毕出 更新时间:2016-07-08 18:24

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