The modern multinational corporation is described as having originated when the owner-managers of nineteenth-century British firms carrying on international trade were replaced by teams of salaried managers organized into hierarchies. Increases in the volume of transactions in such firms are commonly believed to have necessitated this structural change. Nineteenth-century inventions like the steamship and the telegraph, by facilitating coordination of managerial activities, are described as key factors. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century chartered trading companies, despite the international scope of their activities, are usually considered irrelevant to this discussion: the volume of their transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.
In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships, built and operated offices and warehouses, manufactured trade goods for use abroad, maintained trading posts and production facilities overseas, procured goods for import, and sold those goods both at home and in other countries. The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation. For example, in the Hudson's Bay Company, each far-flung trading outpost was managed by a salaried agent, who carried out the trade with the Native Americans, managed day-to-day operations, and oversaw the post's workers and servants. One chief agent, answerable to the Court of Directors in London through the correspondence committee, was appointed with control over all of the agents on the bay.
The early trading companies did differ strikingly from modern multinationals in many respects. They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers' holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant. They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a premodern system of artisan and peasant production. Despite these differences, however, early trading companies organized effectively in remarkably modern ways and merit further study as analogues of more modern structures.
The passage suggests that modern multinationals differ from early chartered trading companies in that
the top managers of modern multinationals own stock in their own companies rather than simply receiving a salary
modern multinationals depend on a system of capitalist international trade rather than on less modern trading systems
modern multinationals have operations in a number of different foreign countries rather than merely in one or two
the operations of modern multinationals are highly profitable despite the more stringent environmental and safety regulations of modern governments
the overseas operations of modern multinationals are not governed by the national interests of their home countries
A选项：顶级的现代多国公司的管理人员们拥有自己公司的股票而不仅仅是只领薪水。这个选项定位在“Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers' holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant.”。这句话说的早期的公司。所以这个选项是错误的（说反了）。
B选项：现代的多国公司依靠国际资金贸易系统而不是不现代的贸易系统。原文中定位在“They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a premodern system of artisan and peasant production. ”即原来的公司嫁接了国际资金贸易系统，现代的公司显然是没有嫁接的。
E选项：Correct. 海外的多国公司的操作并不是受国家的利益所影响的。这句话定位在“They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. ”。这句话说的是早期的公司是受影响的，所以现代的公司是不受影响的。