Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during the Second World War gave rise to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war. Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace. While union representatives often voiced this inclusive ideal, in practice unions far more often favored entrenched interests. The accelerating development of the civil rights movement following the Second World War exacerbated the unions' dilemma, forcing trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own practices.

According to the passage, the historians mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and the scholars mentioned in the second highlighted portion disagree about the

contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War

issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War

relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War

effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace

extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War






支持主题(Supporting ideas)



A选项:工会对于二战战争的贡献。 在文中作者并没有讨论工会的贡献,文中也没有涉及。这个选型较易排除。

B选项:工会成员认为二战时最重要的那些事情。  这个也较易排除,文中没有涉及工会成员认为重要的事,而是一个简单的叙述。


二战对工会工作场所的影响。 这个选项有一定迷惑性。因为文章第一段两种历史学家的矛盾点可以解释为在二战的影响上(一个认为有影响,另一个认为没有影响)。但是“workplace”在文中并没有提到,也就是说这个影响不是在工会的工作场所这个问题上的。

黑人在二战中获得的社会和法律的利益的程度。这个选项较易排除, 不过要注意,这个很容易用我们的常识来推出来。大家读了那么多Gmat的文章,涉及到黑人权益的很多,所以把这个很容易当成背景知识或者是常识。要小心不要引入外部知识。


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