Arboria is floundering in the global marketplace,incurring devastating losses in market position and profits. The problem is not Arboria’s trade policy. Arboria faces the prospect of continuing economic loss until Arborian business and political leaders recognize the fundamental differences between Arboria and foreign economic systems. Today the key trade issue is not free trade versus protectionism but diminishing trade versus expanding trade.

Arboria is operating with an obsolete trade policy, an artifact of the mid-1940s when Arboria and Whorfland dominated the global economy, tariffs were the principal obstacle to trade, and Arborian supremacy was uncontested in virtually all industries. In the intervening decades, economic circumstances have shifted radically. Arborian trade policy has not.

Today, Arbona's trade policy seems paralyzed by the relentless conflict between proponents of “free” and “fair” trade. The free traders argue that Arbonian markets should be open, and the movement of goods and services across national borders unrestrained. The fair traders assert that access to Arborian markets should be restricted until Arborian businesses are granted equal access to foreign markets. They contend that free trade is impossible whlie other nations erect barriers to Arborian exports.

Both are correct: fair trade requires equal access and equal access leads to free trade. But both sides base their positions on the same two outdated premises:

1.Global commerce is conducted under the terms of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (IGAT) and dominated by Arboria and similar economic systems abroad.

2.Multilateral negotiations are the most effective way to resolve pressing trade issues. 

Both assumptions are wrong. The 40-year-old GATT now covers less than 7 percent of global commerce. World trade is no longer dominated by the free-trade economies; nearly 75 percent is conducted by economic systems operating with principles at odds with those of Arboria. Forging a multilateral trade policy consensus among so many diverse economic systems has become virtually impossible. And while multilateral talks drag on, Arboria misses opportunities for trade expansion.

Which of the following best states the difference between free trade and fair trade, as explained in the passage?

Free trade requires no trade tariffs whatso whereas fair trade assumes multilateral agreement on tariffs for goods of equal worth.

Free trade is based on the unrestricted movement of goods across all national boundaries, whereas fair trade is based on a nation's restriction of commerce with each nation that erects trade barriers to the first nation’s exports.

The trade policies of countries like Arboria are based on the principles of free trade, whereas the trade policies of other types of world economies are based on fair trade.

Free-trade nations negotiate individual trade agreements with each of their trading partners, whereas fair-trade nations conduct multilateral trade negotiations.

Free trade assumes a constant level of global commerce, whereas fair trade promotes a steady expansion of international trade.



1. Arboria快不行了,为啥呢?原因并不是trade policy出问题,而是leaders没能意识到自个儿和别的国家的差距。并且现在的主要矛盾并不是“自由贸易”和“保护主义”,而是“减少贸易”和“扩大贸易”。

2.  Arboria还在用着过时的policy(虽然这个policy一度让Arboria很牛逼),但外面的世界早就天翻地覆了。

3. Arboria关于fair trade和free trade的定位是OK的,但基于的前提(a. Global commerce是由Arboria和与其相似的经济体主导;b.多边谈判是最有效的解决贸易问题的手段)太out了。为啥?因为用global commerce的国家忒少了,导致多边谈判就不太可能,因此Ariboria错失了扩大贸易的机会。


文章细节题:以下哪项完美解释了free trade和fairtrade的差距?

原文解释free trade为商品无国界流通;fair trade为Arborian市场应该被限制,直到Arborian的商人能够平等的进入外国市场(aka大家平等的互利互惠。)


A选项:free trade不要求关税,而fair trade指在同等价值的商品的关税上达成多边协议:原文在解释二者的时候没有对比在处理关税问题上的不同。

B选项:正确。free trade基于商品无国界的自由流通,fair trade基于一个国家对其他国家的限制,而这些限制使得这个国家的出口受到了限制(说白了就是你限制我我也限制你):与原文一致。

C选项:像Arboria这样的国家的贸易政策基于free trade,而世界上其他的经济体的贸易政策是基于fair trade:Arboria这个国家还在纠结是fair trade还是free trade,但世界上大部分国家已经和Arboria不一样了,但并不是全不一样,只是大部分国家。

Free trade是和每个partner一对一签协议,而fair trade是多边协议:原文没提两种policy在单边多边上的不同。

Free trade假设了一个稳定的全球商业level,而fair trade提倡一个扩张的全球商业:原文没提。


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