The argument for “monetizing” -or putting a monetary value on- ecosystem functions may be stated thus: Concern about the depletion of natural resources is widespread, but this concern, in the absence of an economic argument for conservation, has not translated into significant conservational progress. Some critics blame this impasse on environmentalists , whom they believe fail to address the economic issues of environmental degradation. Conservation can appear unprofitable when compared with the economic returns derived from converting natural assets (pristine coastlines, for example) into explicitly commercial ones (such as resort hotels). But according to David Pearce, that illusion stems from the fact that ”services” provided by ecological systems are not traded on the commodities market, and thus have no readily quantifiable value. To remedy this, says Pearce, one has to show that all ecosystems have economic value-indeed, that all ecological services are economic services. Tourists visiting wildlife preserves, for example, create jobs and generate income for national economies; undisturbed forests and wetlands regulate water runoff and act as water-purifying systems, saving millions of dollars worth of damage to property and to marine ecosystems. In Gretchen Daily`s view, monetization, while unpopular with many environmentalists, reflects the dominant role that economic considerations play in human behavior, and the expression of economic value in a common currency helps inform environmental decision-making processes.

Information in the passage suggests that David Pearce would most readily endorse which of  the following statements concerning monetization?

Monetization represents a strategy that in attractive to both environmentalists and their critics.

Monetization is an untested strategy, but it is increasingly being embraced by environmentalists.

Monetization should at present be restricted to ecological services and should only gradually be extended to such commercial endeavors as tourism and recreation.

Monetization can serve as a means of representing persuasively the value of environmental conservation.

Monetization should inform environmental decision-making processes only if it is accepted by environmentalist groups.






David Pearce的观点:所有的生态系统是有经济价值的

Gretchen Daily的观点:monetization体现了economic value的重要性



先总结一下DP的观点:生态保护其实是profitable的,之前的误解是由于生态保护无法通过在市场交易来体现“可量化的收益” ,但其实有另外的方式可以体现其quantifiable profit。


A选项: 环境学家和他们的反对者都赞同monetization:文章没有提到DP认为环境学家支持M,只提到GD认为monetization在环境学家那里是不受欢迎的。






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