In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well

a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires

since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well

because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

##### 考题讲解

A选项：Correct. 本选项在语法和逻辑上均是正确的。

B选项：a thick needle layer和a thick layer of needles的意思是不同的。虽然两者中的needle都可以被认为成是layer的定语，但是普通的名词做定语和所有格定语还是有区别的，例如：woman teacher和teacher of woman（或woman’s teacher）。前者是“女教师”的意思，后者则是“女人拥有的老师”。也就是说，名词做定语，表示的是其修饰的名词的一个子集；而所有格则表示一种拥有关系。用之于本选项可知，a thick needle layer表示的是，layer有一个子集，是needle layer，这显然是不合逻辑的。应该是松树的针所拥有的层（layer）可以保护芽。因此，a thick needle layer应改为a thick layer of needles。另外，from where这个表达是不正确的，要么直接用where，要么用from which。

C选项：protect的主语的核心词是a thick layer，所以应改为protects。

D选项：
a thick needle layer错误同(B)；since表示因为，有了它后面就不用再加consequently来表示结果了，即，consequently是赘余的。

E选项：
because和as a result的赘余错误同(D)。