In corporate purchasing, competitive scrutiny is typically limited to suppliers of items that are directly related to end products. With “indirect” purchases (such as computers, advertising, and legal services), which are not directly related to production, corporations often favor “supplier partnerships” (arrangements in which the purchaser forgoes the right to pursue alternative suppliers), which can inappropriately shelter suppliers from rigorous competitive scrutiny that might afford the purchaser economic leverage. There are two independent variables‐availability of alternatives and ease of changing suppliers‐that companies should use to evaluate the feasibility of subjecting suppliers of indirect purchases to competitive scrutiny. This can create four possible situations.
In Type 1 situations, there are many alternatives and change is relatively easy. Open pursuit of alternatives‐by frequent competitive bidding, if possible—will likely yield the best results. In Type 2 situations, where there are many alternatives but change is difficult—as for providers of employee health-care benefits—it is important to continuously test the market and use the results to secure concessions from existing suppliers. Alternatives provide a credible threat to suppliers, even if the ability to switch is constrained. In Type 3 situations, there are few alternatives, but the ability to switch without difficulty creates a threat that companies can use to negotiate concessions from existing suppliers. In Type 4 situations, where there are few alternatives and change is difficult, partnerships may be unavoidable.

It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to a company purchasing health care benefits for its employees?

Devise strategies for circumventing the obstacles to replacing the current provider of health care benefits.

Obtain health care benefits from a provider that also provides other indirect products and services.

Obtain bids from other providers of health care benefits in order to be in a position to negotiate a better deal with the current provider.

Switch providers of health care benefits whenever a different provider offers a more competitive price.

Acknowledge the difficulties involved in replacing the current provider of health care benefits and offer to form a partnership with the provider.




原文在situation 2里提到了医保,这一种situation是指由很多替代品,但换supplier较难,不断地测试市场并且用测试的结果来保住在现有的供应商的特权。


A选项:设计绕过障碍的策略来替换医保的卖家:situation 2认为更换卖家是困难的。

B选项:找一个提供其他indirect g&s的医保卖家:原文没提到。


只要有卖家出更低价,就换:这个是situation 1的情况。

承认很难更换,并且提出形成sp:这个是situation 4的情况。


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