Current feminist theory, in validating women's own stories of their experience, has encouraged scholars of women's history to view the use of women's oral narratives as the methodology, next to the use of women's written autobiography, that brings historians closest to the "reality" of women's lives. Such narratives, unlike most standard histories, represent experience from the perspective of women, affirm the importance of women's contributions, and furnish present-day women with historical continuity that is essential to their identity, individually and collectively.

Scholars of women's history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people. Moreover, the stories people tell to explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices and storytelling conventions, as well as by other cultural and historical factors, in ways that the storytellers may be unaware of. The political rhetoric of a particular era, for example, may influence women's interpretations of the significance of their experience. Thus a woman who views the Second World War as pivotal in increasing the social acceptance of women's paid work outside the home may reach that conclusion partly and unwittingly because of wartime rhetoric encouraging a positive view of women's participation in such work.


According to the passage, which of the following shapes the oral narratives of women storytellers?


The conventions for standard histories in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives

The conventions of storytelling in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives

A woman storyteller's experience with distinctive traditions of storytelling developed by the women in her family of origin

The cultural expectations and experiences of those who listen to oral narratives

A woman storyteller's familiarity with the stories that members of other groups in her culture tell to explain themselves

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