Rock varnish is typically rich in iron and manganese, with the presence of manganese due to bacteria on the surface of the rock. Because the bacteria would not survive on the surface of rocks in the colder, continuously frozen, reaches of Antarctica, scientists were not surprised to discover that rock varnish in the Thiel Mountains area of Antarctica consists only of limonite, a form of oxidized iron. This had penetrated from the surfaces of the rocks into the cracks. However, although moisture is essential to the movement of limonite, snow has not melted in the Thiel Mountains in recent times.

Indicate which statement in the table the given information most strongly suggests is true, and the statement that the given information most strongly suggests is false. Make only two selections, one in each column.


  


True False
Moisture is required for the presence of significant amounts of manganese in the environment.
Moisture is not required for the presence of significant amounts of manganese in the environment.
When temperatures in a continuosly frozen location increase to above freezing, cracks in rocks there begin to take in rock varnish containing significant amounts of manganese.
Rock varnish that is especially rich in iron is mostly found in extreme cold.
Manganese is unable to penetrate into cracks in significant amounts.
Temperatures on rocks in the Thiel Mountains were above freezing at some point in the past.
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GMATLA-2PA