The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the founding of specialist firms (those attempting to serve a narrow target market). According to this model, specialist foundings hinge on the interplay between legitimation and competitive forces, both of which are functions of the density (total number) of firms in a particular specialist population. Legitimation occurs as a new type of firm moves from being viewed as unfamiliar to being viewed as a natural way to organize. At low density levels, each founding increases legitimation, reducing barriers to entry and easing subsequent foundings. Competition occurs because the resources that firms seek--customers, suppliers, and employees--are limited, but as long as density is low relative to plentiful resources, the addition of another firm has a negligible impact on the intensity of competition. At high density levels, however, competitive effects outweigh legitimation effects, discouraging foundings. The more numerous the competitors, the fiercer the competition will be and the smaller will be the incentive for new firms to enter the field.

While several studies have found a significant correspondence between the density dependence model and actual patterns of foundings, other studies have found patterns not consistent with the model. A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, while studies typically restrict their analysis to the national level. Thus a national-level analysis can understate the true legitimation and competitive forces as well as the number of foundings in an industry that is internationally integrated. Many industries are or are becoming international, and since media and information easily cross national borders, so should legitimation and its effects on overseas foundings. For example, if a type of firm becomes established in the United States, that information transcends borders, reduces uncertainties, and helps foundings of that type of firm in other countries. Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels.

In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with

noting various exceptions to a certain general finding

examining the impact of one type of industry on another

proposing a possible explanation for an inconsistency

providing specific examples of a particular phenomenon

defending the validity of a particular study's conclusions






支持主题(Supporting ideas)+ 评价(Evaluation)

定位于第二段整段。第二段其实主要讲了有些研究认为Density dependence model 是不适用于研究“the founding of specialist firms”。作者不同意,就列举了一个可能的对与这个“inconsistent”的解释。


A选项: 记录对一个定义(发现)的各种特例。第二段不是特例,而是一些研究认为这个方法根本上就是不对的。



对于一个特定的现象提出的具体的例子。第二段确实提出了一个例子,不过这个例子是为了说明那个“possible explanation”的,并不是一个什么特定的现象。

维护一个特殊研究的结果有效性。第二段作者是想提出某些研究认为“dependence model”不对,并且顺理成章的提出一个解释,而第二段说的那些“studies”的结果并不是作者想要研究和说明的。


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