The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the founding of specialist firms (those attempting to serve a narrow target market). According to this model, specialist foundings hinge on the interplay between legitimation and competitive forces, both of which are functions of the density (total number) of firms in a particular specialist population. Legitimation occurs as a new type of firm moves from being viewed as unfamiliar to being viewed as a natural way to organize. At low density levels, each founding increases legitimation, reducing barriers to entry and easing subsequent foundings. Competition occurs because the resources that firms seek--customers, suppliers, and employees--are limited, but as long as density is low relative to plentiful resources, the addition of another firm has a negligible impact on the intensity of competition. At high density levels, however, competitive effects outweigh legitimation effects, discouraging foundings. The more numerous the competitors, the fiercer the competition will be and the smaller will be the incentive for new firms to enter the field.

While several studies have found a significant correspondence between the density dependence model and actual patterns of foundings, other studies have found patterns not consistent with the model. A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, while studies typically restrict their analysis to the national level. Thus a national-level analysis can understate the true legitimation and competitive forces as well as the number of foundings in an industry that is internationally integrated. Many industries are or are becoming international, and since media and information easily cross national borders, so should legitimation and its effects on overseas foundings. For example, if a type of firm becomes established in the United States, that information transcends borders, reduces uncertainties, and helps foundings of that type of firm in other countries. Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels.

According to the passage, which of the following may account for the inconsistency between the general density dependence model and the evidence provided by certain studies of foundings?

Such studies have overemphasized the impact of preexisting firms on the establishment of new firms.

Such studies have not focused strongly enough on the role of competition among newly established firms operating at the city and state levels.

Such studies fail to differentiate among specialist firms with regard to the degree to which they deviate from familiar forms of organization.

Such studies have not taken into account the fact that many industries are internationally integrated.

Such studies have neglected to investigate firms that attempt to serve only a narrow target market.






支持主题(Supporting ideas)
该题目可以定位在第二段的前三句话。当然主要是第三句可以找到答案:“Thus a national-level analysis can understate the true legitimation and competitive forces as well as the number of foundings in an industry that is internationally integrated.  ”。



B选项: 这样的研究没有足够重视竞争性在新建立的州级或市级公司中的地位。这个选项的依据主要来源于文章的最后一句话。不过最后一句话只是出现了一些关键词,本质上和选项中说的意思没什么联系,甚至有反关系。也就是说,就算不注重“city level”的研究,density dependence model 也可以工作的非常好。





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