In a 1984 book, Claire C.Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally. British colonialism imposed European-style male-dominant notions upon more egalitarian local situations to the detriment of women generally, and gender became a defining characteristic that weakened women's power and authority.

Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa. Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya than it was in Ghana, although age was still crucial in determining authority. In contrast with Ghana, where women had traded for hundreds of years and achieved legal majority (not unrelated phenomena), the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time. Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women's inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana. However, since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.


The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in highlight text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women's status and authority in Ghana?


Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.

Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.

Colonialism had less of an impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women that it had on the status and authority of other African women.

The relative independence of Ghanaian women prior to colonialism was unique in Africa.

Before colonialism, the status and authority of Ghanaian women was similar to that of Kenyan women.

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