In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United States Supreme Court rejected the efforts of three Native American tribes to prevent the opening of tribal lands to non-Indian settlement without tribal consent. In his study of the Lone Wolf case, Blue Clark properly emphasizes the Court's assertion of a virtually unlimited unilateral power of Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate) over Native American affairs. But he fails to note the decision's more far-reaching impact: shortly after Lone Wolf, the federal government totally abandoned negotiation and execution of formal written agreements with Indian tribes as a prerequisite for the implementation of federal Indian policy. Many commentators believe that this change had already occurred in 1871 when-following a dispute between the House and the Senate over which chamber should enjoy primacy in Indian affairs-Congress abolished the making of treaties with Native American tribes. But in reality the federal government continued to negotiate formal tribal agreements past the turn of the century, treating these documents not as treaties with sovereign nations requiring ratification by the Senate but simply as legislation to be passed by both houses of Congress. The Lone Wolf decision ended this era of formal negotiation and finally did away with what had increasingly become the empty formality of obtaining tribal consent.

The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

identifying similarities in two different theories

evaluating a work of scholarship

analyzing the significance of a historical event

debunking a revisionist interpretation

exploring the relationship between law and social reality






主旨(Main idea)

这篇文章作者逻辑上只是想解释一个历史法案,即“Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock”。中间有一些让步什么的(eg. 1871)都是为了作者更好的介绍这个历史上的法案所带来的影响。


A选项: 辨认两个理论的相同点。两个理论实质1903的和1871年的,但是作者并不想说它们之间有什么关系,要突出的是 1903的“Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock”是产生如此大的影响的原因。

B选项:评估一个学术工作。这个是文章的一个细节,学术工作是“Blue Clark”的,作者的确对其做了评估,但是作者并非为了评估而评估,而是要突出其学术工作所指向的历史案件。

C选项:Correct。分析一个历史事件的意义。作者在文章中着力分析这“Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock”的意义,文中最后一句也恰好揭示了作者的逻辑重点,即“Lone Wolf”的历史意义。

揭穿修正主义者的解释。这些修正主义者应该是指Commentators in 1871。这是细节而非主旨。



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