During the nineteenth century, occupational information about women that was provided by the United States census-a population count conducted each decade-became more detailed and precise in response to social changes. Through 1840, simple enumeration by household mirrored a home-based agricultural economy and hierarchical social order: the head of the household (presumed male or absent) was specified by name, whereas other household members were only indicated by the total number of persons counted in various categories, including occupational categories. Like farms, most enterprises were family-run, so that the census measured economic activity as an attribute of the entire household, rather than of individuals.

The 1850 census, partly responding to antislavery and women's rights movements, initiated the collection of specific information about each individual in a household. Not until 1870 was occupational information analyzed by gender: the census superintendent reported 1.8 million women employed outside the home in "gainful and reputable occupations." In addition, he arbitrarily attributed to each family one woman "keeping house." Overlap between the two groups was not calculated until 1890, when the rapid entry of women into the paid labor force and social issues arising from industrialization were causing women's advocates and women statisticians to press for more thorough and accurate accounting of women's occupations and wages.

The passage suggests which of the following about the "women's advocates and women statisticians" mentioned in the highlighted text?

They wanted to call attention to the lack of pay for women who worked in the home.

They believed that previous census information was inadequate and did not reflect certain economic changes in the United States.

They had begun to press for changes in census-taking methods as part of their participation in the antislavery movement.

They thought that census statistics about women would be more accurate if more women were employed as census officials.

They had conducted independent studies that disputed the official statistics provided by previous United States censuses.






逻辑结构(Logical structure)




B选项: Correct。他们认为以前的普查信息是不全面的,也不能反应某些美国的经济变化。这个貌似翻译过来就显而易见了吧……..“女性倡议者和女性统计学家”的行为的起因是一种entry(原文:the rapid entry…cause…)。而这个entry就是一个描述美国社会女性地位的变化的词,和B选项恰好对应。





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