Most studies of what causes people to leave their current job (employee turnover) have focused exclusively on full-time employment. Much of this research draws attention to four categories of influence on turnover: work-related factors, such as low job satisfaction; external factors, such as wage-earner status in the household and attractive job alternatives; individual characteristics, such as education and age; and job performance (how well an individual functions in a particular job). A question that arises for industries that rely heavily on part-time labor is whether these factors influence turnover among part-time employees in the same manner that they do among full-time employees. Studies focusing on full-time employment have posited that the higher the employee's educational level, the higher that individual's expectations, leading to greater job dissatisfaction and increased likelihood of turnover. A recent study that focused on turnover among part-time workers suggests that when an individual assumes a part-time job as a secondary activity to supplement household income, it is probable that because of its lower importance, the job will cause considerably less frustration for the individual than will a job that provides a household's primary income. On the other hand, the same study finds support for applying to part-time workers the assertion found in full-time turnover literature that household primary-income earners are less likely than are other workers to leave a job voluntarily.


The results of the "recent study" mentioned in the highlighted text suggest which of the following about the relationship between wage-earner status and employee turnover?


Full-time employees are more likely than are part-time employees to change jobs in spite of their status as household primary-income earner.

Wage-earner status plays a greater role than does the availability of attractive job alternatives in influencing employee turnover.

The effect on turnover of an employee's status as household primary-income earner is similar for full-time and part-time employees.

An employee's wage-earner status has little added influence on turnover in cases where the employee's job dissatisfaction is high.

A part-time employee who is not the household primary-income earner is less likely to change jobs than is a part-time worker who is the household primary-income earner.

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