Distressed by his own personal tragedies, the Roman philosopher Cicero once asked himself whether a wise person should try to achieve the Stoic ideal of complete emotionlessness. Cicero reasoned that, however desirable the goal may be, a wise person could never attain it, since emotions are not simply irrational urges. They are, rather, a product of one’s estimate of the goodness and badness of the events, people, and actions one witnesses.

Which of the following is an assumption required by Cicero’s reasoning?

Wise people inevitably evaluate at least some of the things they observe.

Irrationality makes evaluation of what one observes impossible.

Wisdom precludes attempting to attain what one cannot.

If evaluations are based only on reason, then they are inaccurate.

A wise person will not evaluate what cannot be directly observed.


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