《毕出21套》解析:逻辑第7套

毕出 ·

逻辑第 7 套

1.

In countries where automobile insurance includes compensation for whiplash injuries sustained in automobile accidents, reports of having suffered such injuries are twice as frequent as they are in countries where whiplash is not covered. Presently, no objective test for whiplash exists, so it is true that spurious reports of whiplash injuries cannot be readily identified. Nevertheless, these facts do not warrant the conclusion drawn by some commentators that in the countries with the higher rates of reported whiplash injuries, half of the reported cases are spurious. Clearly, in countries where automobile insurance does not include compensation for whiplash, people often have little incentive to report whiplash injuries that they actually have suffered.

In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?


(A) The first is a claim that the argument disputes; the second is a conclusion that has been based on that claim.

(B) The first is a claim that has been used to support a conclusion that the argument accepts; the second is that conclusion.

(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion for which the argument provides further evidence; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

(D) The first is a finding whose implications are at issue in the argument; the second is a claim presented in order to argue against deriving certain implications from that finding.

(E) The first is a finding whose accuracy is evaluated in the argument; the second is evidence presented to establish that the finding is accurate.


题干译文:

在车险包含whiplash injuries(颈椎过度屈伸损伤,以下简称w)的国家,此伤的上报率是保险不含此伤的国家的两倍。当下没有针对w的检测,所以我们无法辨别出w的谎报。然而,这个事实并不能支持commentator的结论——在上报率高的国家,有一半是谎报。很明显,在保险不含w的国家,人们通常没有上报的动力。

问题:

特殊问法——黑脸题

思考方向——

a) 文章主结论是哪一句:这个事实并不能支持commentator的结论

b) 两句黑脸和主结论的关系:黑1,一个现象;黑2,支持主结论

选项解析:

A. 黑1是文章反对的观点;黑2是基于那个观点得出的结论:黑1是得出主结论的现象,并不是文章反对的观点。

B. 黑1是支持文章赞成的观点的结论;黑2是那个结论:黑2并不是结论,而是支持主结论的一句话。

C. 黑1是支持一个结论的证据,文章基于这个结论给出了更多的证据;黑2是文章主结论:黑2并不是主结论,而是支持主结论的一句话。

D. 正确。黑1是一个发现,这个发现的影响在文章中被讨论;黑2是一个观点,这个观点是为了反对从那个发现得出的影响的:从黑1得出的影响有两个,一个是“一半谎报”,一个是“人们不愿意上报”,黑2可以看做是反对前一个影响的观点。

E. 黑1是一个发现,这个发现的准确度在文章中被评估了;黑2证明这个发现是准确:文章并没有讨论黑1这个客观现象的准确度。


2.

A study of ticket sales at a summer theater festival found that people who bought tickets to individual plays had a no-show rate of less than 1 percent, while those who paid in advance for all ten plays being performed that summer had a no-show rate of nearly 30 percent. This may be at least in part because the greater the awareness customers retain about the cost of an item, the more likely they are to use it.

Which of the following would, if true, best serve as an alternative explanation of the results of the study?


(A) The price per ticket was slightly cheaper for those who bought all ten tickets in advance.

(B) Many people who attended the theater festival believed strongly that they should support it financially.

(C) Those who attended all ten plays became eligible for a partial refund.

(D) Usually, people who bought tickets to individual plays did so immediately prior to each performance that they attended.

(E) People who arrived just before the performance began could not be assured of obtaining seats in a preferred location.


题干译文:

夏季电影节的售票情况显示,买单张票的观众的缺席率是小于1%的,但是提前买好10张套票的观众的缺席率是将近30%的。这个现象或许是因为,人们对某物的成本记得越清楚,就越容易使用此物。

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项可以作为研究结果的另一个解释

思考方向——找出单张票缺席率低而套票高的原因

选项解析:

A. 提前买的十张套票的单价要便宜一些:票价的高低无法解释缺席率的不同。

B. 参加电影节的人认为他们应该给予经济支持:无法指出为什么缺席率不同。

C. 参与十张套票的观众可以拿到部分退款:如果此选项成立,人们更应该积极出席套票的演出。

D. 正确。通常来说,人们买单张票是在演出马上要开始的时候:临演出开始买票说明他们可能就是冲着这个演出来的,而提前把票买好,变数较大,就不容易准时出席。

E. 临演出开始才到达的观众选不到好座位:无关。


3.

Environmental organizations want to preserve the land surrounding the Wilgrinn Wilderness Area from residential development. They plan to do this by purchasing that land from the farmers who own it. That plan is ill-conceived: if the farmers did sell their land, they would sell it to the highest bidder, and developers would outbid any other bidders. On the other hand, these farmers will never actually sell any of the land, provided that farming it remains viable. But farming will not remain viable if the farms are left unmodernized, and most of the farmers lack the financial resources modernization requires. And that is exactly why a more sensible preservation strategy would be to assist the farmers to modernize their farms to the extent needed to maintain viability.

In the argument as a whole, the two boldface proportions play which of the following roles?


(A) The first presents a goal that the argument rejects as ill-conceived; the second is evidence that is presented as grounds for that rejection.

(B) The first presents a goal that the argument concludes cannot be attained; the second is a reason offered in support of that conclusion.

(C) The first presents a goal that the argument concludes can be attained; the second is a judgment disputing that conclusion.

(D) The first presents a goal, strategies for achieving which are being evaluated in the argument; the second is a judgment providing a basis for the argument's advocacy of a particular strategy.

(E) The first presents a goal that the argument endorses; the second presents a situation that the argument contends must be changed if that goal is to be met in the foreseeable future.


题干译文:

环保组织想保护WWA周围的地,让它们免于住宅开发。组织的计划是从土地拥有者手里买下地。这个计划是有问题的:如果农民卖地,他们会卖给出价更高的开发商。另一方面,如果这些土地还能使用,农民就不会出售土地。但是如果农田无法现代化,土地就无法使用,而农民也没有实现现代化的资金。这就是为什么一个更合理的策略是:帮助农民实现土地现代化。

问题:

特殊问法——黑脸题

思考方向——

a) 文章主结论是哪一句:这就是为什么一个更合理的策略是:帮助农民实现土地现代化

b) 两句黑脸和主结论的关系:黑1,一个目标;黑2,支持主结论

选项解析:

A. 黑1是被文章反对的、认为有问题的目标;黑2是支持这个反对的:文章没有说这个目标有问题。

B. 黑1是文章认为无法实现的目标;黑2是支持这个结论的理由:文章没有说这个目标不能达到。

C. 黑1是文章认为可以实现的目标;黑2是反对这个结论的评价:黑2没有反对“目标可以实现”这个结论。

D. 正确。黑1是一个目标,用来实现此目标的策略在文章中被讨论;黑2是支持文章拥护的那个策略的

E. 黑1是文章支持的目标;黑2是一个场景,文章认为如果想要实现目标此场景必须被改变:文章没有企图改变农民的想法,而是要改变我们的策略,去顺应农民。


4.

Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

The Roman emperors issued coins made of a silver-copper alloy. Over time the silver content in the alloy used for minting was reduced from an original 90% to less than 10%. The coins, however, continued to appear silver on the outside. It is therefore tempting to suspect that the silver surfaces were added to hide the reduction in silver content. However, that suspicion is probably groundless, since ______.


(A) surviving late Roman coins that are much worn often do not appear silver at all

(B) the Roman emperors were increasingly unable to afford to maintain a high silver content in their coins

(C) in Roman times it would not have been possible to analyze the exact proportions of the metals in a coin once it had been minted

(D) most members of the public were probably unaware of what the coins looked like inside 

(E) Roman metalworking methods of the time would have naturally resulted in a layer on the surface of any silver-copper alloy


题干译文:

罗马帝国发行了一种银铜合金的硬币。合金中银的含量从之前的90%下降到10%不到。然而,这种硬币依旧在外部镀了一层银。因此我们怀疑这种银色表层是为了隐藏内部银含量的减少。然而,这个怀疑是站不住脚的,因为______.

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项可以合理地补全文章

思考方向——解释表面镀银并不是为了隐藏内部银含量的减少

选项解析:

A. 破旧的留存下的罗马硬币没有显示出银:此选项无法解释为什么要在表面镀银。

B. 罗马帝国越来越负担不起在硬币里添加银:此选项解释了银含量下降的原因,没有解释为什么要在表面镀银的原因。

C. 在罗马时期,一旦铸造好,是没有办法检测硬币里的金属含量的:此选项无法解释为什么要在表面镀银。

D. 大部分民众并不知道硬币里是什么样:民众能不能意识到和统治者怎么做无关。

E. 正确。罗马的金属工艺会自然而然地在银铜合金的表面形成一个表层:说明了是因为技术问题而不是故意隐藏,才导致表面镀银的现象。


5.

With employer-paid training, workers have the potential to become more productive not only in their present employment but also in any number of jobs with different employers. To increase the productivity of their workforce, many firms are planning to maintain or even increase their investments in worker training. But some training experts object that if a trained worker is hired away by another firm, the employer that paid for the training has merely subsidized a competitor. They note that such hiring has been on the rise in recent years.

Which of the following would, if true, contribute most to defeating the training experts’ objection to the firms’ strategy?


(A) Firms that promise opportunities for advancement to their employees get, on average, somewhat larger numbers of job applications from untrained workers than do firms that make no such promise.

(B) In many industries, employees who take continuing-education courses are more competitive in the job market.

(C) More and more educational and training institutions are offering reduced tuition fees to firms that subsidize worker training.

(D) Research shows that workers whose training is wholly or partially subsidized by their employer tend to get at least as much training as do workers who pay for all their own training.

(E) For most firms that invest in training their employees, the value added by that investment in employees who stay exceeds the value lost through other employee’ leaving to work for other companies.


题干译文:

得益于雇主支付的培训,雇员的潜在生产力可以提高,不仅今年是针对现在的工作,也针对任何工作。为了提高生产力,许多公司决定继续或者增加针对工作培训的投资。但是一些培训专家不赞同,他们认为如果培训好的雇员被别的公司雇走,支付了培训费的雇主相当于津贴了对手。专家注意到这种趋势近来在增加。

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项可以反对专家的观点(即,这个培训项目是在给对手做嫁衣)

思考方向——支持这个项目即可

选项解析:

A. 比起没有承诺的公司,承诺给予培训的公司会收到更多的未培训雇员的求职:能收到多少求职与会不会给别人做嫁衣无关。

B. 在许多行业,参加后续教育课程的员工在职场上更有竞争力:此选项与会不会给别人做嫁衣无关。

C. 越来越多的教育培训机构给补贴员工培训的公司减免学费:学费多少与会不会给别人做嫁衣无关。

D. 研究表明,或多或少被雇主补贴的雇员会获得和自费培训雇员至少一样的训练:能获得多少培训与会不会给别人做嫁衣无关。

E. 正确。对于大部分投资培训的公司,在留下来的雇员身上投资而获得的价值>离职雇员带来的损失:如果我们获得的价值大于损失的价值,那么这个项目就不能算是给别人做嫁衣。


6.

Escalating worldwide demand for corn has led to a sharp increase in the market price of corn, and corn prices are likely to remain high. Corn is extensive used as feed for livestock, and because profit margins are tight in the livestock business, many farmers are expected to leave the business. With fewer suppliers, meat prices will surely rise. Nonetheless, observers expect an immediate short-term decrease in meat prices.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to justify the observers' expectation?


(A) The increase in corn prices is due more to a decline in the supply of corn than to a growth in demand for it.

(B) Generally, farmers who are squeezed out of the livestock business send their livestock to market much earlier than they otherwise would.

(C) Some people who ate meat regularly in the past are converting to diets that include little or no meat. 

(D) As meat prices rise, the number of livestock producers is likely to rise again.

(E) Livestock producers who stay in the business will start using feed other than corn more extensively than they did in the past. 


题干译文:

玉米的需求增加导致玉米价格上涨,并且一时降不下来。玉米是家畜的重要饲料,而家畜饲养业的利润很低,所以许多农民会退出这个行业。随着供应下降,肉价肯定会上涨。但观察员认为肉价会有一个立即的、短暂的下降。

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项可以解释观察员的观点

思考方向——找出肉价会立即短暂下降的原因

选项解析:

A. 玉米价格的上涨是因为供不应求:此选项解释了玉米价格上涨的原因,与肉价很快会短暂下降的原因无关。

B. 正确。要退出饲养业的农民会提前把他们的家畜带到市场出售:如果很多农民会先“清家产”,那么肉的供应很快会短暂增加,肉价就会短暂下降。

C. 之前经常吃肉的人会改为吃很少或者不吃肉:人们吃肉行为的变化无法解释为什么肉价很快会短暂下降。

D. 随着肉价上涨,家畜饲养员的人数会上升:这可能是一个长期变化,但我们要解释为什么肉价“很快、短暂”的下降。

E. 留在饲养业的饲养员会用别的饲料:饲养员的应对措施与肉价会短暂下降的原因无关。


7.

Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes immediately on contact with cold air. Because the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is planning to market a wastewater purification system that works on the same principle. The process works only when temperatures are cold, however, so municipalities using it will still need to maintain a conventional system.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to maintain a conventional purification system as well?


(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be removed from wastewater.

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater purification systems that need to be replaced.

(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems have not been fully successful in killing bacteria at cold temperatures.

(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires relatively little maintenance.

(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a problem of water shortage.


题干译文:

制雪机的工作原理是:喷出雾后,雾和冷空气接触然后冻住。鉴于这种快速冷冻可以杀死细菌,QF公司计划推出一款废水净化器,这个废水净化器的原理和制雪机的原理一样。然而,这个原理只有在很冷的时候才有效,所以使用此新型废水净化器的城市依旧需要保留传统废水净化器。

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项可以支持城市既保留传统废水净化器也可以买新型废水净化器的做法

思考方向——给出和传统的相比,新型废水净化器的优点

选项解析:

A. 细菌并不是废水中唯一需要被移除的杂质:此选项与新型净水器的优点无关。

B. 许多城市的旧废水净化器需要更换:此选项与新型净水器的优点无关。

C. 正确。传统废水净化器在低温下不能有效杀菌:指出了和传统的相比,新型废水净化器的优点。

D. 天气暖和的时候,QF的净化系统在不用的时候需要很少的维修:既然不会使用,不买更省事。

E. 冬天寒冷的地方很少会有水源短缺的问题:此选项与新型净水器的优点无关。


8.

Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of less valuable diamonds can be treated to remove all color. Only sophisticated tests can distinguish such treated diamonds from naturally colorless ones. However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

A serious flaw in the reasoning of the argument is that


(A) comparisons between the price diamonds command as gemstones and their value for other uses are omitted

(B) information about the rarity of treated diamonds is not combined with information about the rarity of naturally colorless, gemstone diamonds

(C) the possibility that colored diamonds might be used as gemstones, even without having been treated, is ignored

(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so

(E) the difficulty that a customer of a jeweler would have in distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from a treated one is not taken into account


题干译文:

无色钻石作为宝石,要价很高。一种价值低一些的钻石可以通过加工变成无色(以下称为人工无色钻石)。只有很厉害的检测才能区分出人工无色钻石和天然无色钻石。但是,只有2%的钻石有被加工的资质,且大部分钻石是不值得进行加工的。所以,珠宝商卖的大部分钻石是天然无色钻石。

问题:

特殊问法——文段基于的错误假设是

思考方向——找出题干推论的漏洞:文章只提了人工无色钻石的占比,没有考虑天然无色钻石是不是更稀有。

选项解析:

A. 某个比较被忽略了:钻石作为宝石的价格 vs 钻石的其他用途的价值:与钻石的其他用途无关。

B. 正确。人工无色钻石的稀有性信息没有和天然无色钻石的稀有性信息结合:文章只说了人工无色钻石所占的比例,没有提天然无色钻石所占的比例,如果天然无色钻石所占的比例小于2%,那么人工无色钻石还是有利可图的。

C. 有色钻石即使不被加工也可以作为宝石,这件事的可能性被忽略了:与有色钻石无关。

D. 目前移除颜色的方法被认为是唯一的方法:与有几种移除颜色的方法无关。

E. 消费者区分人工无色钻石和天然无色钻石的困难没有被考虑进去:与消费者能不能辨别无关。


9.

A milepost on the towpath read "21" on the side facing the hiker as she approached it and "23" on its back. She reasoned that the next milepost forward on the path would indicate that she was halfway between one end of the path and the other. However, the milepost one mile further on read "20" facing her and "24" behind.

Which of the following, if true, would explain the discrepancy described above?


(A) The numbers on the next milepost had been reversed.

(B) The numbers on the mileposts indicate kilometers, not miles.

(C) The facing numbers indicate miles to the end of the path.not miles from the beginning.

(D) A milepost was missing between the two the hiker encountered.

(E) The mileposts had originally been put in place for the use of mountain bikers, not for hikers.


题干译文:

有一个牌子在面对登山者的一面写着“21”,背面写着“23”。她认为下一个牌子应该会说明她走了一半(即,牌子的两面都写着“22”)。但是,下一个牌子面向登山者的一面是“20”,背面写着“24”。

问题:

特殊问法——解释一下这个差异

选项解析:

A. 下一个牌子的数字颠倒了:即使正面写“24”,反面写“20”也很奇怪。

B. 牌子上的数字的单位是千米,而不是英里:与单位无关。

C. 正确。面向登山者的数字暗示的是距终点还有多远,而不是离起点有多远:合理解释了为什么数字在下降。

D. 两个牌子中间少了一块牌子:无关。

E. 牌子最开始是为了骑行者立的,而不是为了登山者:与立牌子的目的无关。


10.

Which of the following best completes the passage below?

At a recent conference on environmental threats to the North Sea, most participating countries favored uniform controls on the quality of effluents, whether or not specific environmental damage could be attributed to a particular source of effluent. What must, of course, be shown, in order to avoid excessively restrictive controls, is that __________.


(A) any uniform controls that are adopted are likely to be implemented without delay

(B) any substance to be made subject to controls can actually cause environmental damage

(C) the countries favoring uniform controls are those generating the largest quantities of effluents

(D) all of any given pollutant that is to be controlled actually reaches the North Sea at present

(E) environmental damage already inflicted on the North Sea is reversible


题干译文:

在一个针对北海环境污染问题的会议上,大部分参与国支持一个针对污水质量的统一控制,无论环境污染是否会归因到某个具体的污水上。当然了,为了避免过度控制,我们必须要确保的是________。

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项可以合理地补全文章

思考方向——避免过度控制

选项解析:

A. 被采纳的统一控制有可能按时实施:实施是延期还是按时与过度控制无关。

B. 正确。被控制的物质真的会造成污染:如果不造成污染的物质也被控制,那么可以算过度控制了。

C. 支持统一控制的国家是那些污水产量最大的国家:支持控制的国家的特点是什么与过度控制无关。

D. 被控制的污染物目前已经到达北海了:不管有没有到达北海,按理说只要造成了污染就需要控制。

E. 北海的环境污染是可逆的:是否可逆与过度控制无关。


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