逻辑第 7 套
In countries where automobile insurance includes compensation for whiplash injuries sustained in automobile accidents, reports of having suffered such injuries are twice as frequent as they are in countries where whiplash is not covered. Presently, no objective test for whiplash exists, so it is true that spurious reports of whiplash injuries cannot be readily identified. Nevertheless, these facts do not warrant the conclusion drawn by some commentators that in the countries with the higher rates of reported whiplash injuries, half of the reported cases are spurious. Clearly, in countries where automobile insurance does not include compensation for whiplash, people often have little incentive to report whiplash injuries that they actually have suffered.
In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
(A) The first is a claim that the argument disputes; the second is a conclusion that has been based on that claim.
(B) The first is a claim that has been used to support a conclusion that the argument accepts; the second is that conclusion.
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion for which the argument provides further evidence; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
(D) The first is a finding whose implications are at issue in the argument; the second is a claim presented in order to argue against deriving certain implications from that finding.
(E) The first is a finding whose accuracy is evaluated in the argument; the second is evidence presented to establish that the finding is accurate.
A study of ticket sales at a summer theater festival found that people who bought tickets to individual plays had a no-show rate of less than 1 percent, while those who paid in advance for all ten plays being performed that summer had a no-show rate of nearly 30 percent. This may be at least in part because the greater the awareness customers retain about the cost of an item, the more likely they are to use it.
Which of the following would, if true, best serve as an alternative explanation of the results of the study?
(A) The price per ticket was slightly cheaper for those who bought all ten tickets in advance.
(B) Many people who attended the theater festival believed strongly that they should support it financially.
(C) Those who attended all ten plays became eligible for a partial refund.
(D) Usually, people who bought tickets to individual plays did so immediately prior to each performance that they attended.
(E) People who arrived just before the performance began could not be assured of obtaining seats in a preferred location.
Environmental organizations want to preserve the land surrounding the Wilgrinn Wilderness Area from residential development. They plan to do this by purchasing that land from the farmers who own it. That plan is ill-conceived: if the farmers did sell their land, they would sell it to the highest bidder, and developers would outbid any other bidders. On the other hand, these farmers will never actually sell any of the land, provided that farming it remains viable. But farming will not remain viable if the farms are left unmodernized, and most of the farmers lack the financial resources modernization requires. And that is exactly why a more sensible preservation strategy would be to assist the farmers to modernize their farms to the extent needed to maintain viability.
In the argument as a whole, the two boldface proportions play which of the following roles?
(A) The first presents a goal that the argument rejects as ill-conceived; the second is evidence that is presented as grounds for that rejection.
(B) The first presents a goal that the argument concludes cannot be attained; the second is a reason offered in support of that conclusion.
(C) The first presents a goal that the argument concludes can be attained; the second is a judgment disputing that conclusion.
(D) The first presents a goal, strategies for achieving which are being evaluated in the argument; the second is a judgment providing a basis for the argument's advocacy of a particular strategy.
(E) The first presents a goal that the argument endorses; the second presents a situation that the argument contends must be changed if that goal is to be met in the foreseeable future.
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?
The Roman emperors issued coins made of a silver-copper alloy. Over time the silver content in the alloy used for minting was reduced from an original 90% to less than 10%. The coins, however, continued to appear silver on the outside. It is therefore tempting to suspect that the silver surfaces were added to hide the reduction in silver content. However, that suspicion is probably groundless, since ______.
(A) surviving late Roman coins that are much worn often do not appear silver at all
(B) the Roman emperors were increasingly unable to afford to maintain a high silver content in their coins
(C) in Roman times it would not have been possible to analyze the exact proportions of the metals in a coin once it had been minted
(D) most members of the public were probably unaware of what the coins looked like inside
(E) Roman metalworking methods of the time would have naturally resulted in a layer on the surface of any silver-copper alloy
With employer-paid training, workers have the potential to become more productive not only in their present employment but also in any number of jobs with different employers. To increase the productivity of their workforce, many firms are planning to maintain or even increase their investments in worker training. But some training experts object that if a trained worker is hired away by another firm, the employer that paid for the training has merely subsidized a competitor. They note that such hiring has been on the rise in recent years.
Which of the following would, if true, contribute most to defeating the training experts’ objection to the firms’ strategy?
(A) Firms that promise opportunities for advancement to their employees get, on average, somewhat larger numbers of job applications from untrained workers than do firms that make no such promise.
(B) In many industries, employees who take continuing-education courses are more competitive in the job market.
(C) More and more educational and training institutions are offering reduced tuition fees to firms that subsidize worker training.
(D) Research shows that workers whose training is wholly or partially subsidized by their employer tend to get at least as much training as do workers who pay for all their own training.
(E) For most firms that invest in training their employees, the value added by that investment in employees who stay exceeds the value lost through other employee’ leaving to work for other companies.
Escalating worldwide demand for corn has led to a sharp increase in the market price of corn, and corn prices are likely to remain high. Corn is extensive used as feed for livestock, and because profit margins are tight in the livestock business, many farmers are expected to leave the business. With fewer suppliers, meat prices will surely rise. Nonetheless, observers expect an immediate short-term decrease in meat prices.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to justify the observers' expectation?
(A) The increase in corn prices is due more to a decline in the supply of corn than to a growth in demand for it.
(B) Generally, farmers who are squeezed out of the livestock business send their livestock to market much earlier than they otherwise would.
(C) Some people who ate meat regularly in the past are converting to diets that include little or no meat.
(D) As meat prices rise, the number of livestock producers is likely to rise again.
(E) Livestock producers who stay in the business will start using feed other than corn more extensively than they did in the past.
Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes immediately on contact with cold air. Because the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is planning to market a wastewater purification system that works on the same principle. The process works only when temperatures are cold, however, so municipalities using it will still need to maintain a conventional system.
Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to maintain a conventional purification system as well?
(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be removed from wastewater.
(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater purification systems that need to be replaced.
(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems have not been fully successful in killing bacteria at cold temperatures.
(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires relatively little maintenance.
(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a problem of water shortage.
Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of less valuable diamonds can be treated to remove all color. Only sophisticated tests can distinguish such treated diamonds from naturally colorless ones. However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.
A serious flaw in the reasoning of the argument is that
(A) comparisons between the price diamonds command as gemstones and their value for other uses are omitted
(B) information about the rarity of treated diamonds is not combined with information about the rarity of naturally colorless, gemstone diamonds
(C) the possibility that colored diamonds might be used as gemstones, even without having been treated, is ignored
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so
(E) the difficulty that a customer of a jeweler would have in distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from a treated one is not taken into account
A. 某个比较被忽略了：钻石作为宝石的价格 vs 钻石的其他用途的价值：与钻石的其他用途无关。
A milepost on the towpath read "21" on the side facing the hiker as she approached it and "23" on its back. She reasoned that the next milepost forward on the path would indicate that she was halfway between one end of the path and the other. However, the milepost one mile further on read "20" facing her and "24" behind.
Which of the following, if true, would explain the discrepancy described above?
(A) The numbers on the next milepost had been reversed.
(B) The numbers on the mileposts indicate kilometers, not miles.
(C) The facing numbers indicate miles to the end of the path.not miles from the beginning.
(D) A milepost was missing between the two the hiker encountered.
(E) The mileposts had originally been put in place for the use of mountain bikers, not for hikers.
Which of the following best completes the passage below?
At a recent conference on environmental threats to the North Sea, most participating countries favored uniform controls on the quality of effluents, whether or not specific environmental damage could be attributed to a particular source of effluent. What must, of course, be shown, in order to avoid excessively restrictive controls, is that __________.
(A) any uniform controls that are adopted are likely to be implemented without delay
(B) any substance to be made subject to controls can actually cause environmental damage
(C) the countries favoring uniform controls are those generating the largest quantities of effluents
(D) all of any given pollutant that is to be controlled actually reaches the North Sea at present
(E) environmental damage already inflicted on the North Sea is reversible