逻辑第 6 套
Mashika: We already know from polling data that some segments of the electorate provide significant support to Ms. Puerta. If those segments also provide significant support to Mr. Quintana, then no segment of the electorate that provides significant support to Mr. Quintana provides significant support to Mr. Ramirez.
Salim: But actually, as the latest polling data conclusively shows, at least one segment of the electorate does provide significant support to both Mr. Quintana and Mr. Ramirez.
Among the following statements, which is it most reasonable to infer from the assertions by Mashika and Salim?
(A) At least one segment of the electorate provides significant support neither to Mr. Quintana nor to Mr. Ramirez.
(B) At least one segment of the electorate provides significant support to Ms. Puerta but not to Mr. Quintana.
(C) Each segment of the electorate provides significant support to Ms. Puerta.
(D) Each segment of the electorate provides significant support to Mr. Quintana.
(E) Each segment of the electorate provides significant support to Mr. Ramirez.
Northern Air has dozens of flights daily into and out of Belleville Airport, which is highly congested. Northern Air depends for its success on economy and quick turnaround and consequently is planning to replace its large planes with Skybuses, whose novel aerodynamic design is extremely fuel efficient. The Skybus' fuel efficiency results in both lower fuel costs and reduced time spent refueling.
Which of the following, if true, could present the most serious disadvantage for Northern Air in replacing their large planes with Skybuses?
(A) The Skybus would enable Northern Air to schedule direct flights to destinations that currently require stops for refueling.
(B) Aviation fuel is projected to decline in price over the next several years.
(C) The fuel efficiency of the Skybus would enable Northern Air to eliminate refueling at some of its destinations, but several mechanics would lose their jobs.
(D) None of Northern Air's competitors that use Belleville Airport are considering buying Skybuses.
(E) The aerodynamic design of the Skybus causes turbulence behind it when taking off that forces other planes on the runway to delay their takeoffs.
Many office buildings designed to prevent outside air from entering have been shown to have Elevated levels of various toxic substances circulating through the air inside, a phenomenon known as sick building syndrome. Yet the air in other office buildings does not have elevated levels of these substances, even though those buildings are the same age as the "sick" buildings and have similar designs and ventilation systems.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain why not all office buildings designed to prevent outside air from entering have air that contains elevated levels of toxic substances?
(A) Certain adhesives and drying agents used in particular types of furniture, carpets, and paint
contribute the bulk of the toxic substances that circulate in the air of office buildings.
(B) Most office buildings with sick building syndrome were built between 1950 and 1990.
(C) Among buildings designed to prevent outside air from entering, houses are no less likely than office buildings to have air that contains elevated levels of toxic substances.
(D) The toxic substances that are found in the air of "sick" office buildings are. substances that are found in at least small quantities in nearly every building.
(E) Office buildings with windows that can readily be opened are unlikely to suffer from sick building syndrome.
A product that represents a clear technological advance over competing products can generally command a high price. Because technological advances tend to be quickly surpassed and companies want to make large profits while they still can, many companies charge the maximum possible price for such a product. But large profits on the new product will give competitors a strong incentive to quickly match the new product's capabilities. Consequently, the strategy to maximize overall profit from a new product is to charge less than the greatest possible price.
In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
(A) The first is a consideration that has been raised to argue that a certain strategy is counterproductive; the second presents that strategy.
(B) The first is a consideration raised to support the strategy that the argument recommends; the second presents that strategy.
(C) The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second presents that strategy.
(D) The first is an assumption, rejected by the argument, that has been used to justify a course of action; the second presents that course of action.
(E) The first is a consideration that has been used to justify pursuing a goal that the argument rejects; the second presents a course of action that has been adopted in pursuit of that goal.
The symptoms that United States President Zachary Taylor began showing five days before his death are consistent with arsenic poisoning. Recent examination of Taylor's bones, however, revealed levels of arsenic comparable to those found in the bones of Taylor's contemporaries. These levels are much lower than the levels of arsenic that remain in the bones of arsenic poisoning victims who live for more than a day after ingesting a lethal dose of the poison.
Which of the following is most strongly supported by the statements given?
(A) The symptoms that Taylor began showing five days before his death are consistent with poisoning other than arsenic poisoning.
(B) Taylor's death was not the result of any kind of poisoning.
(C) The symptoms that Taylor began showing five days before his death were not caused by a lethal dose of arsenic.
(D) The symptoms that Taylor began showing five days before his death grew more severe each day.
(E) It is unusual for a person who has ingested a lethal dose of arsenic to survive for more than a day.
Transnational cooperation among corporations is experiencing a modest renaissance among United States firms, even though projects undertaken by two or more corporations under a collaborative agreement are less profitable than projects undertaken by a single corporation. The advantage of transnational cooperation is that such joint international projects may allow United States firms to win foreign contracts that they would not otherwise be able to win.
Which of the following is information provided by the passage?
(A) Transnational cooperation involves projects too big for a single corporation to handle.
(B) Transnational cooperation results in a pooling of resources leading to high-quality performance.
(C) Transnational cooperation has in the past been both more common and less common than it is now among United States firms.
(D) Joint projects between United States and foreign corporations are not profitable enough to be worth undertaking.
(E) Joint projects between United States and foreign corporations benefit only those who commission the projects.
Environmentalist: The use of snowmobiles in the vast park north of Milville creates unacceptable levels of air pollution and should be banned.
Milville business spokesperson: Snowmobiling brings many out-of-towners to Milville in winter months, to the great financial benefit of many local residents. So, economics dictate that we put up with the pollution.
Environmentalist: I disagree: A great many cross-country skiers are now kept from visiting Milville by the noise and pollution that snowmobiles generate.
Environmentalist responds to the business spokesperson by doing which of the following?
(A) Challenging an assumption that certain desirable outcome can derive from only one set of circumstances.
(B) Challenging an assumption that certain desirable outcome is outweighed by negative aspects associated with producing that outcome.
(C) Maintaining that the benefit that the spokesperson desires could be achieved in greater degree by a different means.
(D) Claiming that the spokesperson is deliberately misrepresenting the environmentalist's position in order to be better able to attack it.
(E) Denying that an effect that the spokesperson presents as having benefited a certain group of people actually benefited those people.
The total market value of real estate in Altonville has steadily declined over the past four years. This decline has meant that the overall figure on which the city's property tax is based - the assessed value of that real estate - has also declined. Moreover, the percentage of assessed value that was paid as property taxes to the city did not change during this period.
The information above most strongly supports which of the following?
(A) Money collected from property taxes provided most of Altonville's revenue during the past four years.
(B) The percentage of Altonville's overall revenue that was collected from property taxes did not change over the past four years.
(C) Altonville officials had proposed raising property tax rates during the past four years but never did so because of strong opposition from property owners.
(D) The total amount of revenue that Altonville has collected from property taxes has declined over the past four years.
(E) During the past four years, Altonville officials also did not increase tax rates on other sources of revenue such as retail sales or business profits.
In Patton City, days are categorized as having heavy rainfall (more than two inches), moderate rainfall (more than one inch, but no more than two inches), light rainfall (at least a trace, but no more than one inch), or no rainfall. In 1990, there were fewer days with light rainfall than in 1910 and fewer with moderate rainfall, yet total rainfall for the year was 20 percent higher in 1990 than in 1910.
If the statements above are true, then it is also possible that in Patton City
(A) the number of days with heavy rainfall was lower in 1990 than in 1910.
(B) the number of days with some rainfall, but no more than two inches, was the same in 1990 as in 1910.
(C) the number of days with some rainfall, but no more than two inches, was higher in 1990 than in 1910.
(D) the total number of inches of rain that fell on days with moderate rainfall in 1990 was more than twice what it had been in 1910.
(E) the average amount of rainfall per month was lower in 1990 than in 1910.
|1990 | 1910|
|降雨总量 ||20% higher＞|
B． 有雨但不超过2 inches的下雨天数（即中雨+小雨天数），1990=1910：不可能。原文明确说了是1990＜1910。
C． 有雨不超过2 inches的下雨天数（即中雨+小雨天数），1990＞1910：不可能。原文明确说了是1990＜1910。
D． 中雨的降水量，1990是1910的两倍：中雨总降水量=中雨日降水量×天数。取极值，假设1990的中雨日降水为2, 1910的中雨日降水为1，那么1990的中雨降水天数=1910的中雨降水天数时，1990才有可能是1910的两倍。但题干告诉我们，1990的中雨天数＜1910的中雨天数。所以中雨的总降水量，1990不可能是1910的两倍。
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?
Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost always have their appendix removed. The appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since ______.
(A) the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis
(B) the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis to someone who does not, in fact, have it
(C) all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact, have appendicitis
(D) every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis
(E) the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis
思考方向——区分误诊的两种情况：1. 没病的被误认为有病，进行了不必要的手术；2. 有病的被误认为没病，错失了必要的手术。我们要解释为什么这个仪器可以尽量避免不必要的阑尾移除手术，而不会错失必要的阑尾移除手术。