《毕出21套》解析:逻辑第6套

毕出 ·

逻辑第 6 套

1.

Mashika: We already know from polling data that some segments of the electorate provide significant support to Ms. Puerta. If those segments also provide significant support to Mr. Quintana, then no segment of the electorate that provides significant support to Mr. Quintana provides significant support to Mr. Ramirez.

Salim: But actually, as the latest polling data conclusively shows, at least one segment of the electorate does provide significant support to both Mr. Quintana and Mr. Ramirez.

Among the following statements, which is it most reasonable to infer from the assertions by Mashika and Salim?


(A) At least one segment of the electorate provides significant support neither to Mr. Quintana nor to Mr. Ramirez.

(B) At least one segment of the electorate provides significant support to Ms. Puerta but not to Mr. Quintana.

(C) Each segment of the electorate provides significant support to Ms. Puerta.

(D) Each segment of the electorate provides significant support to Mr. Quintana.

(E) Each segment of the electorate provides significant support to Mr. Ramirez.


题干译文:

M:从数据来看,有一些区域支持P。如果这些区域也支持Q,那么就没有既支持Q又支持R的区域。

S:但实际上,至少有一个区域既支持Q又支持R。

问题:

特殊问法——根据题干我们可以推出什么

思考方向——既然至少有一个既支持Q又支持R的区域,说明至少有一个支持P但不支持Q的区域。

选项解析:

A. 至少有一个区域既不支持Q也不支持R:不一定。假设有10个区域,可以9个仅支持P,1个支持Q和R;也可以9个支持P和R,1个支持Q和R。

B. 正确。至少有一个支持P但不支持Q的区域。

C. 每个区域都支持P:肯定有不支持P的区域。

D. 每个区域都支持Q:肯定有不支持Q的区域。

E. 每个区域都支持R:如选项A,不一定。


2.

Northern Air has dozens of flights daily into and out of Belleville Airport, which is highly congested.  Northern Air depends for its success on economy and quick turnaround and consequently is planning to replace its large planes with Skybuses, whose novel aerodynamic design is extremely fuel efficient.  The Skybus' fuel efficiency results in both lower fuel costs and reduced time spent refueling.

Which of the following, if true, could present the most serious disadvantage for Northern Air in replacing their large planes with Skybuses?


(A) The Skybus would enable Northern Air to schedule direct flights to destinations that currently require stops for refueling.

(B) Aviation fuel is projected to decline in price over the next several years.

(C) The fuel efficiency of the Skybus would enable Northern Air to eliminate refueling at some of its destinations, but several mechanics would lose their jobs.

(D) None of Northern Air's competitors that use Belleville Airport are considering buying Skybuses.

(E) The aerodynamic design of the Skybus causes turbulence behind it when taking off that forces other planes on the runway to delay their takeoffs.


题干译文:

NA每天有许多飞机在极度拥挤的B机场进进出出。NA是依靠经济和快速转场成功的,目前它计划用省油的Skybus替代现有的大型飞机。Skybus的燃油有效性可以减少燃油成本和补充燃料所耗费的时间。

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪个是NA替换Skybus的坏处

选项解析:

A. Skybus可以让NA安排一些直飞路线,目前这些路线是需要中途停靠补充燃料的:此选项写了Skybus的好处。

B. 接下来几年燃料价格会降低:与燃油价格无关。

C. Skybus的燃油有效性可以让NA不需要在终点补充燃料,但是有些工人会因此失业:加油工人并不属于NA,也不能算Skybus给NA带来的坏处。

D. NA的竞争者并不打算购买Skybus:与竞争者无关。

E. 正确。Skybus的设计会在起飞时造成一些气流,迫使跑道上的其他飞机延迟起飞:NA就是靠快速转场成功的,如果Skybus导致别的飞机延误,那么这可以算Skybus的一大缺点了。


3.

Many office buildings designed to prevent outside air from entering have been shown to have Elevated levels of various toxic substances circulating through the air inside, a phenomenon known as sick building syndrome. Yet the air in other office buildings does not have elevated levels of these substances, even though those buildings are the same age as the "sick" buildings and have similar designs and ventilation systems.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain why not all office buildings designed to prevent outside air from entering have air that contains elevated levels of toxic substances?


(A) Certain adhesives and drying agents used in particular types of furniture, carpets, and paint 

contribute the bulk of the toxic substances that circulate in the air of office buildings.

(B) Most office buildings with sick building syndrome were built between 1950 and 1990.

(C) Among buildings designed to prevent outside air from entering, houses are no less likely than office buildings to have air that contains elevated levels of toxic substances.

(D) The toxic substances that are found in the air of "sick" office buildings are. substances that are found in at least small quantities in nearly every building.

(E) Office buildings with windows that can readily be opened are unlikely to suffer from sick building syndrome.


题干译文:

许多写字楼被设计成阻止外来空气进入的样子,这些写字楼内部空气中的有毒物质不断增多,这种现象被称为“sick building综合征(以下简称综合征)”。但是其他写字楼中就没有这种上升的趋势,即使这些建筑和有综合征的建筑有相似的设计和通风系统。

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪个能解释为什么不是所有的写字楼都有上升的趋势

思考方向——找出两种写字楼的不同之处

选项解析:

A. 正确。特定的家具中的物质会造成有毒物质在空气中积累:即使这些写字楼的设计和通风系统一样,但家具有所不同,解释了为什么不是所有的写字楼都有上升的趋势。

B. 大部分有综合征的写字楼是在1950-1990建造的:本选项没有提到两种写字楼的不同之处。

C. 在所有阻止外来空气进入的建筑中,住宅比写字楼更不可能在空气中积累有毒物质:与住宅没关系。

D. 在有综合征的建筑中发现的有毒物质是那些可以在每个建筑中都发现的物质:本选项没有提到两种写字楼的不同之处。

E. 有窗户的写字楼不可能会得综合征:文章并没有告诉我们是否两种写字楼一个有窗户一个没有,况且他们的设计和通风系统是一样的,所以他们应该会有相同的窗户。


4.

A product that represents a clear technological advance over competing products can generally command a high price. Because technological advances tend to be quickly surpassed and companies want to make large profits while they still can, many companies charge the maximum possible price for such a product.  But large profits on the new product will give competitors a strong incentive to quickly match the new product's capabilities.  Consequently, the strategy to maximize overall profit from a new product is to charge less than the greatest possible price.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?


(A) The first is a consideration that has been raised to argue that a certain strategy is counterproductive; the second presents that strategy.

(B) The first is a consideration raised to support the strategy that the argument recommends; the second presents that strategy.

(C) The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second presents that strategy.

(D) The first is an assumption, rejected by the argument, that has been used to justify a course of action; the second presents that course of action.

(E) The first is a consideration that has been used to justify pursuing a goal that the argument rejects; the second presents a course of action that has been adopted in pursuit of that goal.


题干译文:

一个技术优于竞争对手的产品通常可以要价极高。因为先进的技术通常会很快被超越且公司也希望能尽量多赚钱,所以许多公司会把价格定到最高。但是新产品的高利润会吸引竞争者快速追平新产品。因此,实现利润最大化的策略应该是把价格定到略低于最高价的水平。

问题:

特殊问法——黑脸题

思考方向——

a) 文章主结论是哪一句:黑2

b) 两句黑脸和主结论的关系:黑1,一个不好的策略;黑2,文章支持的策略

选项解析:

A. 黑1是为了证明一个策略是不好的;黑2就是那个策略:后半句不对,黑2是好的策略。

B. 黑1是为了支持文章推荐的一个策略;黑2就是那个策略:前半句不对,黑1并没有支持黑2。

C. 正确。黑1是为了解释对一个策略的召唤;黑2就是那个策略:黑1是一个不好的策略,正是因为这个策略不好才会召唤一个更好的。

D. 黑1是一个被文章拒绝的、用来支持一个行为的假设;黑2就是那个行为:黑1并不是支持黑2的。

E. 黑1是为了支持一个被文章拒绝的目标;黑2是一个为了追求目标的行为:前半句不对,文章没有拒绝目标。


5.

The symptoms that United States President Zachary Taylor began showing five days before his death are consistent with arsenic poisoning.  Recent examination of Taylor's bones, however, revealed levels of arsenic comparable to those found in the bones of Taylor's contemporaries.  These levels are much lower than the levels of arsenic that remain in the bones of arsenic poisoning victims who live for more than a day after ingesting a lethal dose of the poison.

Which of the following is most strongly supported by the statements given?


(A) The symptoms that Taylor began showing five days before his death are consistent with poisoning other than arsenic poisoning.

(B) Taylor's death was not the result of any kind of poisoning.

(C) The symptoms that Taylor began showing five days before his death were not caused by a lethal dose of arsenic.

(D) The symptoms that Taylor began showing five days before his death grew more severe each day.

(E) It is unusual for a person who has ingested a lethal dose of arsenic to survive for more than a day.


题干译文:

美国总统ZT死前五天展示出的症状是和a中毒症状一致的。然而,近期研究表明,ZT骨头里a的含量和同代人骨头里a的含量没什么差别。且这个含量是远低于中毒后活了超过一天的受害人的骨头中a的含量的。

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项是题干所支持的(不是加强题!!)

选项解析:

A. ZT死前五天展示出的症状和a中毒的症状不一致:与原文信息不符,原文明确说了“症状”是一致的。

B. ZT并不是中毒而亡:根据题干或许我们可以判断他不是死于a中毒,但不确定是不是中了别的毒。

C. 正确。ZT死前五天展示出的症状不是由致死量导致的:由于骨头中的含量很低,所以可以确实死因不是a毒。

D. ZT死前五天的症状一天天加重:原文没提。

E. 摄入a毒致死量后能活多于一天是不常见的:原文没提。


6.

Transnational cooperation among corporations is experiencing a modest renaissance among United States firms, even though projects undertaken by two or more corporations under a collaborative agreement are less profitable than projects undertaken by a single corporation.  The advantage of transnational cooperation is that such joint international projects may allow United States firms to win foreign contracts that they would not otherwise be able to win.

Which of the following is information provided by the passage?


(A) Transnational cooperation involves projects too big for a single corporation to handle.

(B) Transnational cooperation results in a pooling of resources leading to high-quality performance.

(C) Transnational cooperation has in the past been both more common and less common than it is now among United States firms.

(D) Joint projects between United States and foreign corporations are not profitable enough to be worth undertaking.

(E) Joint projects between United States and foreign corporations benefit only those who commission the projects.


题干译文:

在美国的电影行业里,公司间的跨国合作正在经历一个适度的复兴,即使合作项目要比单干项目利润低。跨国合作的优势是国际联合项目可以让美国公司拿下一些外国合同,这些合同是不合作就拿不下的。

问题:

特殊问法——文章提供了以下哪个信息

选项解析:

A. 跨国合作包括一些单干公司搞不定的项目:文章没提。

B. 跨国合作会带来高质量的资源:文章没提资源质量的事情。

C. 正确。和现在相比,美国电影行业既经历过更常见的跨国合作也经历过更不常见的跨国合作:与原文modest呼应。

D. 美国和外企的联合项目是不值得投资的:原文只是说利润会低一些,但没有说不值得投资。

E. 美国和外企的联合项目仅能让委任项目的人受益:原文没提受益人群是谁。


7.

Environmentalist: The use of snowmobiles in the vast park north of Milville creates unacceptable levels of air pollution and should be banned.

Milville business spokesperson: Snowmobiling brings many out-of-towners to Milville in winter months, to the great financial benefit of many local residents. So, economics dictate that we put up with the pollution.

Environmentalist: I disagree: A great many cross-country skiers are now kept from visiting Milville by the noise and pollution that snowmobiles generate.

Environmentalist responds to the business spokesperson by doing which of the following?


(A) Challenging an assumption that certain desirable outcome can derive from only one set of circumstances.

(B) Challenging an assumption that certain desirable outcome is outweighed by negative aspects associated with producing that outcome.

(C) Maintaining that the benefit that the spokesperson desires could be achieved in greater degree by a different means.

(D) Claiming that the spokesperson is deliberately misrepresenting the environmentalist's position in order to be better able to attack it.

(E) Denying that an effect that the spokesperson presents as having benefited a certain group of people actually benefited those people.


题干译文:

环境学家:因为雪地摩托车制造了过多空气污染,所以应该被禁掉。

M地商业发言人:雪地摩托车吸引了很多外来游客,这可以给当地人带来经济收入。所以经济学家认为我们可以把污染问题先放一放。

环境学家:我不同意。由于雪地摩托车制造的污染和噪音,很多跨国滑雪爱好者已经不来了。

问题:

特殊问法——环境学家是如何反驳发言人的

选项解析:

A. 质疑了一个假设——某种特定收益的来源只有一个:环境学家并没有针对收入来源有几个进行反驳。

B. 质疑了一个假设——某种特定收益<这种收益产出过程中的负面影响:环境学家没有质疑某种收益产出的负面影响大于收益本身。

C. 认为发言人想要的收益可以被其他方法实现::环境学家并没有针对收入来源有哪些进行反驳。

D. 认为发言人为了更好的反驳,故意曲解环境学家的观点:原文没有体现“曲解”的事情。

E. 正确。并不认为某种效果(发言人认为此效果可以让某类人受益)真的让这类人群受益:发言人认为雪地摩托车给居民带来了经济收益,其实不然,因为雪地摩托车把滑雪者都吓跑了,并没有真正促进经济。


8.

The total market value of real estate in Altonville has steadily declined over the past four years. This decline has meant that the overall figure on which the city's property tax is based - the assessed value of that real estate - has also declined. Moreover, the percentage of assessed value that was paid as property taxes to the city did not change during this period.

The information above most strongly supports which of the following?


(A) Money collected from property taxes provided most of Altonville's revenue during the past four years.

(B) The percentage of Altonville's overall revenue that was collected from property taxes did not change over the past four years.

(C)  Altonville officials had proposed raising property tax rates during the past four years but never did so because of strong opposition from property owners.

(D) The total amount of revenue that Altonville has collected from property taxes has declined over the past four years.

(E) During the past four years, Altonville officials also did not increase tax rates on other sources of revenue such as retail sales or business profits. 


题干译文:

过去四年,A城的房产市值下降了,这也意味着房产税所基于的基数也下降了。而且,这一时期的房产税率也没有变化。

问题:

特殊问法——题干信息支持以下哪项

选项解析:

A. 过去四年,房产税收是A城主要的收入来源:文章没有提A城收入的事情。

B. 过去四年,房产税收在A城总收入中的占比没有变化:文章没有提A城收入的事情。

C. 过去四年,A城企图增加房产税,但由于房主反对没能成功:文章没有提。

D. 正确。过去四年,房产税收下降了:房产税收=税率×房产市值。税率不变,房产市值降低,则房产税收下降。

E. 过去四年,A城没有增加其他方面的税率,比如零售业或者公司利润:文章没有提其他方面的税率变化。


9.

In Patton City, days are categorized as having heavy rainfall (more than two inches), moderate rainfall (more than one inch, but no more than two inches), light rainfall (at least a trace, but no more than one inch), or no rainfall. In 1990, there were fewer days with light rainfall than in 1910 and fewer with moderate rainfall, yet total rainfall for the year was 20 percent higher in 1990 than in 1910.

If the statements above are true, then it is also possible that in Patton City


(A) the number of days with heavy rainfall was lower in 1990 than in 1910.

(B) the number of days with some rainfall, but no more than two inches, was the same in 1990 as in 1910.

(C) the number of days with some rainfall, but no more than two inches, was higher in 1990 than in 1910.

(D) the total number of inches of rain that fell on days with moderate rainfall in 1990 was more than twice what it had been in 1910.

(E) the average amount of rainfall per month was lower in 1990 than in 1910.


题干译文:


1990      |          1910
大雨(降水量>2 inches)天数

中雨(1<降雨量≤2)天数

小雨(0<降雨量≤1)天数

和无雨(降水量=0)天数

降雨总量
20% higher

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项是可能的

选项解析:

A. 正确。大雨天数,1990<1910:根据题干我们可以得出,1990的大雨总量一定大于1910的大雨总量。但鉴于大雨的日降水量没有上限,有可能是1990的大雨天数多,也有可能是1990的大雨天数少但日降水量很大。

B. 有雨但不超过2 inches的下雨天数(即中雨+小雨天数),1990=1910:不可能。原文明确说了是1990<1910。

C. 有雨不超过2 inches的下雨天数(即中雨+小雨天数),1990>1910:不可能。原文明确说了是1990<1910。

D. 中雨的降水量,1990是1910的两倍:中雨总降水量=中雨日降水量×天数。取极值,假设1990的中雨日降水为2, 1910的中雨日降水为1,那么1990的中雨降水天数=1910的中雨降水天数时,1990才有可能是1910的两倍。但题干告诉我们,1990的中雨天数<1910的中雨天数。所以中雨的总降水量,1990不可能是1910的两倍。

E. 平均每月降水量,1990<1910:不可能。1990的总雨量>1910的总雨量,平均到每个月一定是1990>1910。


10.

Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost always have their appendix removed. The appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since ______.


(A) the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis 

(B) the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis to someone who does not, in fact, have it 

(C) all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact, have appendicitis

(D) every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis 

(E) the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis


题干译文:

阑尾炎有潜在的致命性,所以有严重的阑尾炎症状的病人通常会移除阑尾。恰当的手术是低风险的,但是不必要的手术占了20%。一个新的检测仪非常精准,只有2%的误诊率。因此,通过使用这个仪器,医生可以很大程度上避免不必要的阑尾移除手术,而不会错失必要的阑尾移除手术,因为________

问题:

特殊问法——以下哪项可以合理地补全文章

思考方向——区分误诊的两种情况:1. 没病的被误认为有病,进行了不必要的手术;2. 有病的被误认为没病,错失了必要的手术。我们要解释为什么这个仪器可以尽量避免不必要的阑尾移除手术,而不会错失必要的阑尾移除手术。

选项解析:

A. 被仪器准确检测出未患阑尾炎的病人有着没有阑尾炎严重的医疗状况:此选项与仪器有没有尽量避免不必要手术无关。

B. 正确。此仪器导致的误诊情况是“认为没病的人有病”:如果那2%的误诊都是误认为没病的人有病,而不是误认为有病的人没病,就可以很大程度上避免不必要的阑尾移除手术,而不会错失必要的阑尾移除手术。

C. 被仪器认为患阑尾炎的病人确实有此病:此选项与仪器有没有尽量避免不必要手术无关。

D. 被仪器认为患阑尾炎的病人有不止一个症状:与有多少症状无关。

E. 被仪器误诊的病人缺少和阑尾炎相关的症状:与仪器误诊的原理无关。


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