《毕出21套》解析:逻辑第5套

毕出 ·

逻辑第 5 套

1. 

Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

It has been observed that in Britain a majority of the people admitted to elite universities have a last name beginning with a letter in the first half of the alphabet. Some have suggested that these data indicate a bias that could originate in the way admissions files are stored or possibly in school classroom seating arrangements; if those are alphabetically based. However, the observation actually provides no evidence for any alphabetic bias in university admissions, since _________.     

(A) some countries other than Britain show a similar pattern of distribution of university places according to where the last initials of applicants fall in the alphabet

(B) a majority of the British population have last names beginning with a letter in the first half of the alphabet

(C) only a very small fraction of the British population is ever admitted to one of the elite universities

(D) although children in British school classrooms may at one time and in some schools have been seated alphabetically, it is unlikely that this practice survives

(E) elite universities in Britain draw their admissions from a national, rather than a regional, pool of applicants


题干译文:

我们发现,在英国,大部分被精英大学录取的人的姓氏首字母在字母表的前半部分。有些人认为这个数据说明了一个偏见。这个偏见可能起源于录取文件排列的顺序或者在学校的考试位置安排(如果它们是按照字母排列的)。然而,这个观察并不能证明这个偏见是对的,因为_____________。

问题:

特殊问法

思考方向:直接证明这个现象(大部分被精英大学录取的人的姓氏首字母在字母表的前半部分)和偏见无关。

选项解析:

A. 别的国家展示出了一个相似的分布规律:与别的国家无关。

B. 正确。大部分英国人的姓氏首字母都在字母表前半部分:说明姓氏首字母在字母表前半部分的人占的比例就高,那么精英大学录取的人中姓氏首字母在字母表前半部分的人占的比例高也正常,与偏见无关。

C. 只有一小部分英国人可以被精英大学录取:无法证明现象和偏见有没有关系

D. 虽然学生在学校偶尔会按照字母排列,但这个现象不会长久:学生怎么安排与能不能被大学录取无关。

E. 英国的精英学校从全国而不是某个地区录取申请人:与录取的地域范围无关。


2.

Brochure:  Help conserve our city’s water supply.  By converting the landscaping in your yard to a water-conserving landscape, you can greatly reduce your outdoor water use.  A water-conserving landscape is natural and attractive, and it also saves you money.

Criticism:  For most people with yards, the savings from converting to a water-conserving landscape cannot justify the expense of new landscaping, since typically the conversion would save less than twenty dollars on a homeowner’s yearly water bills.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best basis for a rebuttal of the criticism?


(A) Even homeowners whose yards do not have water-conserving landscapes can conserve water by installing water-saving devices in their homes.

(B) A conventional landscape generally requires a much greater expenditure on fertilizer and herbicide than does a water-conserving landscape.

(C) A significant proportion of the residents of the city live in buildings that do not have yards.

(D) It costs no more to put in water-conserving landscaping than it does to put in conventional landscaping.

(E) Some homeowners use more water to maintain their yards than they use for all other purposes combined.


题干译文:

Brochure:我们要节约用水了。通过把院子中的景观换成节水型可以大幅度减少户外用水。这种节水型景观自然,迷人,还能省钱,多好。

Criticism: 对于大部分有院子的人来说,节水型景观省下的钱是小于此景观带来的花费的,因为节水型景观每年只能省不到20刀的水费。

问题:

特殊问法——反对criticism的观点

思考方向:节水型景观省下的钱不一定会小于此景观带来的花费

选项解析:

A. 院子里没有节水景观的人也可以通过在房间里安装节水设备来节约用水:我们讨论的并不是节水的方式,而是节水型景观的性价比如何。

B. 正确。和节水景观相比,传统景观通常要在肥料和杀虫上花费更多:此选项告诉我们节水景观其他可以省钱的地方,那么节水型景观省下的钱就不一定会小于此景观带来的花费,反驳了criticism的结论。

C. 很多人住在没有院子的房子里:我们讨论的对象是有院子的人,至于没院子的人占比多少,无关。

D. 安装节水型景观和安装传统景观花费一样:我们讨论的是安装节水型景观,与安装传统景观无关。

E. 一些人用于院子的水量要大于其他用途的用水量:不同用途的水量比较和我们的讨论无关。


3.

Scientist: A greenhouse gas, for example, carbon dioxide, forms a transparent layer that traps solar heat beneath it in the earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide are currently increasing, causing the climate to warm—an effect that is predicted by at least one computer model of the greenhouse effect. But the warming that has occurred is a great deal less than what would be expected based on the model. Therefore, .

Which of the following most logically completes the scientist's argument?


(A) better measurements of atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide are needed

(B) the definition of “greenhouse gas” should probably be reconsidered

(C) there are factors besides the increase in greenhouse-gas emissions contributing to the warming of the climate

(D) the computer model of the greenhouse effect must be incorrect in some respect

(E) the likely consequences of any warming of the climate are unlikely to be much less damaging than predicted


题干译文:

科学家说:温室气体,比如二氧化碳,会形成一个透明层,这个透明层会吸收太阳能。目前大气中的二氧化碳在增加,从而造成了气候变暖——一个由电脑模型预测出来的效应。但是已经发生的变暖是要远小于电脑预测出来的。因此,_______________

问题:

特殊问法——基于文章的信息得出一个结论

思考方向:现实和预测有出入,说明什么? 模型有问题。

选项解析:

A. 我们需要一个更好的对二氧化碳含量的测量方法:与二氧化碳含量的测量方法无关。

B. 我们应该重新定义“温室气体”:与定义无关。

C. 有其他造成气候变暖的因素:无法解释为什么实际值小于预测值。

D. 正确。一定是模型哪里出了问题。

E. 气候变暖的后果不可能比预测的更不有杀伤力:与后果无关。


4.

Lead poisoning in children can cause serious brain damage and impaired development. Because ingestion of lead-based paints is the most common cause of lead poisoning among children, Centerville passed a law five years ago requiring the removal of lead-based paint from the walls of any house or apartment containing children. Yet, in the years since the law was passed, the number of new lead-poisoning cases among Centerville children has substantially increased.

Which of the following, if true would most help to explain why the number of cases of lead poisoning has increased despite the law about paint removal?


(A) Many other common lead-based products were severely restricted by Centerville at the same time that the law was passed.

(B) The process by which lead-based paint is removed from walls is extremely expensive.

(C) The process by which lead-based paint is removed from walls releases paint dust that is easily ingestible.

(D) The number of children living in Centerville now is just over half of what it was ten years ago.

(E) The penalty for not removing lead paint from the walls is a substantial fine.


题干译文:

儿童铅中毒会严重影响大脑发展。鉴于摄入铅漆是孩子铅中毒的主要原因,所以C城于五年前通过了一条法律:移除有儿童的房屋的墙上的铅漆。但是,法律通过后的几年,儿童铅中毒的案例反而增加了。

问题:

特殊问法——解释为什么在法律通过后,儿童铅中毒的案例反而增加了?

思考方向——直接找出增加的原因即可

选项解析:

A. 在法律通过的同时,许多其他含铅产品被严格限制了:如果其他含铅产品被限制了,按理说铅中毒案例会下降。此选项与原文现象相反。

B. 移除墙上铅漆的过程很昂贵:与移除铅漆的成本无关。

C. 正确。移除墙上铅漆的过程会释放很多易摄入的铅漆粉尘:解释了为什么移除了有铅漆的墙还会铅中毒,因为有了新的摄入铅的途径。

D. C城的儿童数量比十年前下降了一半:如果儿童数量少了,按理说铅中毒案例会下降。此选项与原文现象相反。

E. 不移除铅漆的罚金很高:与罚金多少无关。


5.

Wolves generally avoid human settlements.  For this reason, domestic sheep, though essentially easy prey for wolves, are not usually attacked by them.  In Hylantia prior to 1910, farmers nevertheless lost considerable numbers of sheep to wolves each year.  Attributing this to the large number of wolves, in 1910 the government began offering rewards to hunters for killing wolves.  From 1910 to 1915, large numbers of wolves were killed.  Yet wolf attacks on sheep increased significantly.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the increase in wolf attacks on sheep? 

 

(A) Populations of deer and other wild animals that wolves typically prey on increased significantly in numbers from 1910 to 1915.

(B) Prior to 1910, there were no legal restrictions in Hylantia on the hunting of wolves.

(C) After 1910 hunters shot and wounded a substantial number of wolves, thereby greatly diminishing these wolves' ability to prey on wild animals.

(D) Domestic sheep are significantly less able than most wild animals to defend themselves against wolf attacks.

(E) The systematic hunting of wolves encouraged by the program drove many wolves in Hylantia to migrate to remote mountain areas uninhabited by humans.


题干译文:

狼通常会避开人类。所以即使羊很容易被捕获,狼也不会去攻击家养羊。1910年前,H地农民的羊被狼吃了很多。政府认为这是因为狼的数量过多,所以悬赏猎人去猎杀狼群。1910到1915,大量狼被杀掉,但是狼对羊的攻击反而显著增加了。

问题:

特殊问法——解释一下为什么虽然狼的数量下降了,但狼群对羊的攻击增加了

思考方向——直接找出攻击增加的原因即可

选项解析:

A. 鹿和其他狼会吃的野生动物在1910-1915年显著增加了:如果野生动物减少,或许狼因为没东西吃而去攻击家养羊,但野生动物增加,更不应该去攻击家养羊。此选项与题干信息不符。

B. 1910年前,H地没有对猎杀狼的限制:1910年前的限制情况是无关的。

C. 正确。1910年后,猎人射伤很多狼,所以它们捕猎野生动物的能力下降了:解释了为什么即使狼的数量更少了,但狼攻击家养羊的情况增多,因为他们没有能力捕获野生动物,只能去吃更容易捕获的家养羊。

D. 家养羊和其他野生动物比起来,更没有能力防御狼的攻击:与我们要解释的现象无关。

E. 系统性的猎杀导致很多狼移民到没有人类居住的地儿:如果狼跑了,按理说狼对家养羊的攻击会减少。此选项与题干信息不符。


6.

Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

A certain tropical island received food donations in the form of powdered milk for distribution to its poorest residents, who were thought to be malnourished.  Subsequently, the rate of liver cancers among those islanders increased sharply.  The donated milk was probably to blame:  recent laboratory research on rats has shown that rats briefly exposed to the substance aflatoxin tend to develop liver cancer when fed casein, a milk protein.  This result is relevant because __________.


(A) in the tropics, peanuts, a staple of these island residents, support a mold growth that produces aflatoxin

(B) the liver is more sensitive to carcinogens, of which aflatoxin may be one, than most other bodily organs

(C) casein is not the only protein contained in milk

(D) powdered milk is the most appropriate form in which to send milk to a tropical destination

(E) the people who were given the donated milk had been screened for their ability to digest milk


题干译文:

一个热带小岛收到了针对营养不良的穷人的奶粉捐赠。之后,这些岛民患肝癌的比例猛然上升。或许被捐赠的奶粉要背锅:实验表明,短暂暴露于aflatoxin的小白鼠会在摄入一种牛奶蛋白质(casein)的时候得肝癌。这个实验结果与前面提到的现象是有关的,因为___________。

问题:

特殊问法

思考方向——建立“老鼠”和“奶粉背锅”的关系。即,将aflatoxin和前文的现象挂上钩

选项解析:

A. 正确。在热带,岛民的主食——花生——支持生产aflatoxin的霉菌生长:如果此岛有aflatoxin这种物质,说明确实是因为奶粉导致的肝癌。

B. 比起其他器官,肝脏对carcinogens(aflatoxin的一种)更敏感:与我们讨论的关系无关。

C. Casein不是牛奶中唯一的蛋白质:与我们讨论的关系无关。

D. 奶粉是给热带地区捐牛奶的最合适的形式:与我们讨论的关系无关。

E. 接受奶粉捐赠的人事先被检查过他们消化牛奶的能力:与我们讨论的关系无关。


7.

Advertisement: Today's customers expect high quality. Every advance in the quality of manufactured products raises customer expectations. The company that is satisfied with the current quality of its products will soon find that its customers are not. At MegaCorp, meeting or exceeding customer expectations is our goal.

Which of the following must be true on the basis of the statements in the advertisement above?


(A) MegaCorp’s competitors will succeed in attracting customers only if those competitors adopt MegaCorp's goal as their own.

(B) A company that does not correctly anticipate the expectations of its customers is certain to fail in advancing the quality of its products.

(C) MegaCorp's goal is possible to meet only if continuing advances in product quality are possible.

(D) If a company becomes satisfied with the quality of its products, then the quality of its products is sure to decline.

(E) MegaCorp's customers are currently satisfied with the quality of its products.


题干译文:

广告商:如今的顾客都期待高质量。产品质量每进步一些,就会进一步提高消费者的期望。满足于当下产品质量的公司很快就会发现顾客是不满足的。在Megacorp公司(以下简称M公司),我们的目标是满足或者超过消费者的期望。

问题:

特殊问法——基于题干信息,以下哪项一定是对的?

选项解析:

A. M公司的竞争者只有在他们也采用M公司的目标时才能成功吸引消费者:文章没有提到竞争对手的情况。

B. 一个不能正确预判消费者期望的公司一定会在提高产品质量这件事上失败:文章没有提预判消费者期望与产品质量的关系。

C. 正确。只有持续提高产品质量,M公司才能实现其目标:只有不断提高产品质量,才能满足顾客要求。如果一个公司无法继续提高质量,那么它就无法继续满足顾客要求。

D. 如果一个公司满足于其产品的质量,这个产品的质量一定会下降:文章没有提质量下降的事情。

E. M公司的顾客目前是满足于产品质量的:文章没有提顾客的情况


8.

Parasitic wasps lay their eggs directly into the eggs of various host insects in exactly the right numbers for any suitable size of host egg.  If they laid too many eggs in a host egg, the developing wasp larvae would compete with each other to the death for nutrients and space.  If too few eggs were laid, portions of the host egg would decay, killing the wasp larvae.

Which of the following conclusions can properly be drawn from the information above?


(A) The size of the smallest host egg that a wasp could theoretically parasitize can be determined from the wasp's egg-laying behavior.

(B) Host insects lack any effective defenses against the form of predation practiced by parasitic wasps.

(C) Parasitic wasps learn from experience how many eggs to lay into the eggs of different host species.

(D) Failure to lay enough eggs would lead to the death of the developing wasp larvae more quickly than would laying too many eggs.

(E) Parasitic wasps use visual clues to calculate the size of a host egg.


题干译文:

寄生蜂会把自己的卵下到不同昆虫寄主的卵上,下的数量与寄主卵的大小相当。如果寄生蜂在宿主卵中下的卵过多,幼蜂会为了营养和空间而争夺致死;如果下的卵过少,宿主卵的一部分会腐烂。

问题:

特殊问法——我们可以从题干中得出什么结论?

选项解析:

A. 正确。宿主卵的尺寸最小值可以通过寄生蜂的产卵行为判断出来:题干告诉我们,寄生蜂可以根据宿主卵的大小下精准数量的卵,所以我们可以根据其下卵的数量推出宿主卵的尺寸情况。

B. 昆虫宿主缺乏对寄生行为的有效防御:文章没有提宿主对寄生的防御。

C. 寄生蜂从经验习得他们在不同大小的宿主卵上下多少卵:文章没有提寄生蜂从哪里获得此技能的。

D. 比起产过多的卵,产不足数量的卵会更快导致幼崽的死亡:文章没有比较幼崽死亡的速度。

E. 寄生蜂用视觉计算宿主卵的大小:文章没有提寄生蜂计算大小的方法。


9.

In areas with limited access to motorized transportation, farmers plant crops as close as possible to their homes to minimize the walking required to reach their fields and the work required to transport their harvest back to their homes. Farmers have almost no motorized transportation in certain parts of Africa where cassava is an important food crop. Although by no means the easiest to transport, cassava is invariably the crop planted farthest from these farmers' villages.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best explanation for the relative placement of the cassava crops?


(A) Unlike cassava, other food crops require substantial tending and protection from wild animals.

(B) Cassava, unlike most other food crops, require a great deal of preparation after being harvested before it can be eaten.

(C) Farmers with motorized transportation who plant cassava usually plant it farther from their villages than any of their other food crops.

(D) Many other food crops are significantly less difficult to plant than cassava is.

(E) The relative placement of food crops other than cassava varies considerably from village to village.


题干译文:

在交通有限的情况下,农民会尽可能把作物种在离家近的地方,以此减少去农田和把作物运回家里的距离。非洲某地几乎没有交通运输工具,且cassava是当地重要的作物。尽管没有便捷的交通方式,但是cassava被种在了最远的地方。

问题:

特殊问法——解释为什么cassava被种在了最远的地方

选项解析:

A. 正确。不像cassava,其他作物需要被保护不受野生动物影响:如果cassava不怕野生动物,就可以种的远一些,把其他会受到野生动物骚扰的作物种得近一些。

B. 不像其他作物,cassava在成熟后、被食用前需要精心准备:如果需要精心准备反而更应该种得近一些。

C. 交通便捷的农民会把cassava种到最远的地方:我们讨论的是无交通的农民,与有交通的农民无关。

D. 其他作物比cassava更容易种植:种植的容易度与距离无关。

E. 在不同村庄,除了cassava的其他作物的种植地方是变化的:村庄间的变化是无法解释为什么cassava被种在了最远的地方。


10.

Most jurors will be more inclined to reach a verdict favorable to one side if that side's case is based primarily on eyewitness testimony rather than on physical evidence backed by expert scientific testimony. Surprisingly, studies involving jurors in mock trials have found that this tendency survives even for those jurors who understand that eyewitness testimony is generally less reliable than is physical evidence backed by expert testimony.

Which of the following, if true, would most help to explain the surprising phenomenon described above?


(A) Jurors in mock trials usually spend less time deliberating and worrying about reaching the right verdict than do jurors in actual trials.

(B) Because expert testimony regarding physical evidence presented at trial is almost invariably given by witnesses testifying for one side or the other, many jurors regard such witnesses as biased.

(C) The credibility that a particular juror will assign to a particular eyewitness will be profoundly influenced by personal characteristics of the eyewitness including age.

(D) Even jurors who understand that eyewitnesses tend to be less reliable than physical evidence incorrectly believe they are better than the average juror at telling when an eyewitness’s testimony is reliable.

(E) The more complex the physical evidence presented at trial is, the less it will influence the jurors in reaching their verdict.


题干译文:

如果某一方是基于目击证词而不是专家支持的物证,那么大部分陪审员更倾向于支持这一方。令人惊讶的是,在模拟法庭中这种倾向也存在,即使陪审员明确知道目击证词并没有物证靠谱。

问题:

特殊问法——解释为什么即使知道目击证词不靠谱,陪审员也更会相信基于目击证词的一方

选项解析:

A. 比起真实法庭,模拟法庭的陪审员通常花更少的时间考虑和担心做出正确的裁决:能否做出正确裁决与为什么相信“不靠谱”的目击证词无关。

B. 因为专家支持的物证会受目击证人的影响,所以大部分陪审员认为此目击证人是有偏见的:无法解释为什么即使知道目击证词不靠谱,陪审员也更会相信基于目击证词的一方。

C. 陪审员对某个目击证人的信任程度会受证人的个性(包括年龄)影响:我们已经明确知道目击证词是不靠谱的,至于影响靠谱程度的因素是什么,无关。 

D. 正确。那些清楚地知道目击证词不靠谱的陪审员会误以为自己比别人更善于辨别目击证词什么时候是靠谱的:解释了为什么即使目击证词不靠谱,陪审员也更会相信基于目击证词的一方,因为他们高估了自己的能力,觉得自己可以辨别出不靠谱的证据,但实际上并没有。

E. 物证越复杂,越不会影响陪审员做出裁决:与我们要解释的现象无关。


文章分类: 复习资料

登录注册 后可以参加讨论

快来第一个发言吧