逻辑第 5 套
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
It has been observed that in Britain a majority of the people admitted to elite universities have a last name beginning with a letter in the first half of the alphabet. Some have suggested that these data indicate a bias that could originate in the way admissions files are stored or possibly in school classroom seating arrangements； if those are alphabetically based. However, the observation actually provides no evidence for any alphabetic bias in university admissions, since _________.
(A) some countries other than Britain show a similar pattern of distribution of university places according to where the last initials of applicants fall in the alphabet
(B) a majority of the British population have last names beginning with a letter in the first half of the alphabet
(C) only a very small fraction of the British population is ever admitted to one of the elite universities
(D) although children in British school classrooms may at one time and in some schools have been seated alphabetically, it is unlikely that this practice survives
(E) elite universities in Britain draw their admissions from a national, rather than a regional, pool of applicants
Brochure: Help conserve our city’s water supply. By converting the landscaping in your yard to a water-conserving landscape, you can greatly reduce your outdoor water use. A water-conserving landscape is natural and attractive, and it also saves you money.
Criticism: For most people with yards, the savings from converting to a water-conserving landscape cannot justify the expense of new landscaping, since typically the conversion would save less than twenty dollars on a homeowner’s yearly water bills.
Which of the following, if true, provides the best basis for a rebuttal of the criticism?
(A) Even homeowners whose yards do not have water-conserving landscapes can conserve water by installing water-saving devices in their homes.
(B) A conventional landscape generally requires a much greater expenditure on fertilizer and herbicide than does a water-conserving landscape.
(C) A significant proportion of the residents of the city live in buildings that do not have yards.
(D) It costs no more to put in water-conserving landscaping than it does to put in conventional landscaping.
(E) Some homeowners use more water to maintain their yards than they use for all other purposes combined.
Scientist: A greenhouse gas, for example, carbon dioxide, forms a transparent layer that traps solar heat beneath it in the earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide are currently increasing, causing the climate to warm—an effect that is predicted by at least one computer model of the greenhouse effect. But the warming that has occurred is a great deal less than what would be expected based on the model. Therefore, .
Which of the following most logically completes the scientist's argument?
(A) better measurements of atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide are needed
(B) the definition of “greenhouse gas” should probably be reconsidered
(C) there are factors besides the increase in greenhouse-gas emissions contributing to the warming of the climate
(D) the computer model of the greenhouse effect must be incorrect in some respect
(E) the likely consequences of any warming of the climate are unlikely to be much less damaging than predicted
Lead poisoning in children can cause serious brain damage and impaired development. Because ingestion of lead-based paints is the most common cause of lead poisoning among children, Centerville passed a law five years ago requiring the removal of lead-based paint from the walls of any house or apartment containing children. Yet, in the years since the law was passed, the number of new lead-poisoning cases among Centerville children has substantially increased.
Which of the following, if true would most help to explain why the number of cases of lead poisoning has increased despite the law about paint removal?
(A) Many other common lead-based products were severely restricted by Centerville at the same time that the law was passed.
(B) The process by which lead-based paint is removed from walls is extremely expensive.
(C) The process by which lead-based paint is removed from walls releases paint dust that is easily ingestible.
(D) The number of children living in Centerville now is just over half of what it was ten years ago.
(E) The penalty for not removing lead paint from the walls is a substantial fine.
Wolves generally avoid human settlements. For this reason, domestic sheep, though essentially easy prey for wolves, are not usually attacked by them. In Hylantia prior to 1910, farmers nevertheless lost considerable numbers of sheep to wolves each year. Attributing this to the large number of wolves, in 1910 the government began offering rewards to hunters for killing wolves. From 1910 to 1915, large numbers of wolves were killed. Yet wolf attacks on sheep increased significantly.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the increase in wolf attacks on sheep?
(A) Populations of deer and other wild animals that wolves typically prey on increased significantly in numbers from 1910 to 1915.
(B) Prior to 1910, there were no legal restrictions in Hylantia on the hunting of wolves.
(C) After 1910 hunters shot and wounded a substantial number of wolves, thereby greatly diminishing these wolves' ability to prey on wild animals.
(D) Domestic sheep are significantly less able than most wild animals to defend themselves against wolf attacks.
(E) The systematic hunting of wolves encouraged by the program drove many wolves in Hylantia to migrate to remote mountain areas uninhabited by humans.
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?
A certain tropical island received food donations in the form of powdered milk for distribution to its poorest residents, who were thought to be malnourished. Subsequently, the rate of liver cancers among those islanders increased sharply. The donated milk was probably to blame: recent laboratory research on rats has shown that rats briefly exposed to the substance aflatoxin tend to develop liver cancer when fed casein, a milk protein. This result is relevant because __________.
(A) in the tropics, peanuts, a staple of these island residents, support a mold growth that produces aflatoxin
(B) the liver is more sensitive to carcinogens, of which aflatoxin may be one, than most other bodily organs
(C) casein is not the only protein contained in milk
(D) powdered milk is the most appropriate form in which to send milk to a tropical destination
(E) the people who were given the donated milk had been screened for their ability to digest milk
Advertisement: Today's customers expect high quality. Every advance in the quality of manufactured products raises customer expectations. The company that is satisfied with the current quality of its products will soon find that its customers are not. At MegaCorp, meeting or exceeding customer expectations is our goal.
Which of the following must be true on the basis of the statements in the advertisement above?
(A) MegaCorp’s competitors will succeed in attracting customers only if those competitors adopt MegaCorp's goal as their own.
(B) A company that does not correctly anticipate the expectations of its customers is certain to fail in advancing the quality of its products.
(C) MegaCorp's goal is possible to meet only if continuing advances in product quality are possible.
(D) If a company becomes satisfied with the quality of its products, then the quality of its products is sure to decline.
(E) MegaCorp's customers are currently satisfied with the quality of its products.
Parasitic wasps lay their eggs directly into the eggs of various host insects in exactly the right numbers for any suitable size of host egg. If they laid too many eggs in a host egg, the developing wasp larvae would compete with each other to the death for nutrients and space. If too few eggs were laid, portions of the host egg would decay, killing the wasp larvae.
Which of the following conclusions can properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) The size of the smallest host egg that a wasp could theoretically parasitize can be determined from the wasp's egg-laying behavior.
(B) Host insects lack any effective defenses against the form of predation practiced by parasitic wasps.
(C) Parasitic wasps learn from experience how many eggs to lay into the eggs of different host species.
(D) Failure to lay enough eggs would lead to the death of the developing wasp larvae more quickly than would laying too many eggs.
(E) Parasitic wasps use visual clues to calculate the size of a host egg.
In areas with limited access to motorized transportation, farmers plant crops as close as possible to their homes to minimize the walking required to reach their fields and the work required to transport their harvest back to their homes. Farmers have almost no motorized transportation in certain parts of Africa where cassava is an important food crop. Although by no means the easiest to transport, cassava is invariably the crop planted farthest from these farmers' villages.
Which of the following, if true, provides the best explanation for the relative placement of the cassava crops?
(A) Unlike cassava, other food crops require substantial tending and protection from wild animals.
(B) Cassava, unlike most other food crops, require a great deal of preparation after being harvested before it can be eaten.
(C) Farmers with motorized transportation who plant cassava usually plant it farther from their villages than any of their other food crops.
(D) Many other food crops are significantly less difficult to plant than cassava is.
(E) The relative placement of food crops other than cassava varies considerably from village to village.
Most jurors will be more inclined to reach a verdict favorable to one side if that side's case is based primarily on eyewitness testimony rather than on physical evidence backed by expert scientific testimony. Surprisingly, studies involving jurors in mock trials have found that this tendency survives even for those jurors who understand that eyewitness testimony is generally less reliable than is physical evidence backed by expert testimony.
Which of the following, if true, would most help to explain the surprising phenomenon described above?
(A) Jurors in mock trials usually spend less time deliberating and worrying about reaching the right verdict than do jurors in actual trials.
(B) Because expert testimony regarding physical evidence presented at trial is almost invariably given by witnesses testifying for one side or the other, many jurors regard such witnesses as biased.
(C) The credibility that a particular juror will assign to a particular eyewitness will be profoundly influenced by personal characteristics of the eyewitness including age.
(D) Even jurors who understand that eyewitnesses tend to be less reliable than physical evidence incorrectly believe they are better than the average juror at telling when an eyewitness’s testimony is reliable.
(E) The more complex the physical evidence presented at trial is, the less it will influence the jurors in reaching their verdict.