逻辑第 4 套
When storing Renaissance oil paintings, museums conform to standards that call for careful control of the surrounding temperature and humidity, with variations confined within narrow margins. Maintaining this environment is very costly, and recent research shows that even old oil paint is unaffected by wide fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Therefore, museums could relax their standards and save money without endangering their Renaissance oil paintings.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) Renaissance paintings were created in conditions involving far greater fluctuations in temperature and humidity than those permitted by current standards.
(B) Under the current standards that museums use when storing Renaissance oil paintings, those paintings do not deteriorate at all.
(C) Museum collections typically do not contain items that are more likely to be vulnerable to fluctuations in temperature and humidity than Renaissance oil paintings.
(D) None of the materials in Renaissance oil paintings other than the paint are vulnerable enough to relatively wide fluctuations in temperature and humidity to cause damage to the paintings.
(E) Most Renaissance oil paintings are stored in museums located in regions near the regions where the paintings were created.
In an experiment, one group of volunteers was shown words associated with money, such as "salary, whereas another group was shown neutral words. Afterward, individuals in both groups solved puzzles unrelated to money. Those who had been shown words associated with money were much less likely to request or offer help with the puzzles. The researchers concluded from this evidence that preoccupation with money makes people less cooperative.
Which of the following is an assumption the researchers' reasoning requires?
(A) At least some of the volunteers were preoccupied with money before being shown the words.
(B) Being shown the neutral words did not cause the volunteers to become preoccupied with subjects other than money.
(C) Most of the volunteers who were shown neutral words requested or offered help with the puzzles.
(D) Most of the volunteers in both groups succeeded in solving the puzzles, either with or without help.
(E) The volunteers who were shown neutral words were, on average, less preoccupied with money while solving the puzzles than the other volunteers were.
Lightbox, Inc., owns almost all of the movie theaters in Washington County and has announced plans to double the number of movie screens it has in the county within five years. Yet attendance at Lightbox's theaters is only just large enough for profitability now and the county's population is not expected to increase over the next ten years. Clearly, therefore, if there is indeed no increase in population, Lightbox's new screens are unlikely to prove profitable.
Which of the following, if true about Washington County, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) Though little change in the size of the population is expected, a pronounced shift toward a younger, more affluent, and more entertainment-oriented population is expected to occur.
(B) The sales of snacks and drinks in its movie theaters account for more of Lightbox's profits than ticket sales do.
(C) In selecting the mix of movies shown at its theaters, Lightbox's policy is to avoid those that appeal to only a small segment of the moviegoing population.
(D) Spending on video purchases, as well as spending on video rentals, is currently no longer increasing.
(E) There are no population centers in the county that are not already served by at least one of the movie theaters that Lightbox owns and operates.
Supply shortages and signs of growing demand are driving cocoa prices upward. Unusually severe weather in cocoa-producing regions—too much rain in Brazil and too little in West Africa—has limited production. Further, Europe and North America recently reported stronger demand for cocoa. In the first quarter, grinding of cocoa beans—the first stage in processing cocoa for chocolate—rose 8.1 percent in Europe and 16 percent in North America. Analysts have concluded that cocoa's price will continue to rise at least into the near future.
Which of the following would, if true, most strengthen the reasoning above?
(A) Ground cocoa beans can be stored for long periods before they spoil.
(B) Several European and North American manufacturers that use cocoa have recently improved their processing capacity.
(C) It takes new cocoa trees five or six years before they start bearing fruit.
(D) Governments in Europe and North America are likely to change current restrictions on cocoa imports.
(E) Historically, cocoa production has varied widely from year to year.
Proposed new safety rules for Beach City airport would lengthen considerably the minimum time between takeoffs from the airport. In consequence, the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily. The city's operating budget depends heavily on taxes generated by tourist spending, and most of the tourists come by plane. Therefore, the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.
The argument depends on assuming which of the following?
(A) There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed minimum.
(B) Few, if any, of the tourists who use Beach City airport do so when their main destination is a neighboring community and not Beach City itself.
(C) If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.
(D) Increasing the minimum time between takeoffs is the only way to achieve necessary safety improvements without a large expenditure by the city government on airport enhancements.
(E) The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include a large increase in the number of passengers per flight.
Editorial: The roof of Northtown's municipal equipment-storage building collapsed under the weight of last week's heavy snowfall. The building was constructed recently and met local building-safety codes in every particular, except that the nails used for attaching roof supports to the building's columns were of a smaller size than the codes specify for this purpose. Clearly, this collapse exemplifies how even a single, apparently insignificant departure from safety standards can have severe consequences.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the editorial's argument?
(A) The only other buildings to suffer roof collapses from the weight of the snowfall were older buildings constructed according to less exacting standards than those in the codes.
(B) The amount of snow that accumulated on the roof of the equipment storage building was greater than the predicted maximum that was used in drawing up the safety codes.
(C) Because the equipment-storage building was not intended for human occupation, some safety-code provisions that would have applied to an office building did not apply to it.
(D) The municipality of Northtown itself has the responsibility for ensuring that buildings constructed within its boundaries meet the provisions of the building-safety codes.
(E) Because the equipment-storage building was used for storing snow removal equipment, the building was almost completely empty when the roof collapsed.
To prevent a newly built dam on the Chiff River from blocking the route of fish migrating to breeding grounds upstream, the dam includes a fish pass, a mechanism designed to allow fish through the dam. Before the construction of the dam and fish pass, several thousand fish a day swam upriver during spawning season. But in the first season after the project's completion, only 300 per day made the journey. Clearly, the fish pass is defective.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) Fish that have migrated to the upstream breeding grounds do not return down the Chiff River again.
(B) On other rivers in the region, the construction of dams with fish passes has led to only small decreases in the number of fish migrating upstream.
(C) The construction of the dam stirred up potentially toxic river sediments that were carried downstream.
(D) Populations of migratory fish in the Chiff River have been declining slightly over the last 20 years.
(E) During spawning season, the dam releases sufficient water for migratory fish below the dam to swim upstream.
Political Advertisement: Mayor Delmont's critics complain about the jobs that were lost in the city under Delmont's leadership. Yet the fact is that not only were more jobs created than were eliminated, but each year since Delmont took office the average pay for the new jobs created has been higher than that year's average pay for jobs citywide. So it stands to reason that throughout Delmont's tenure the average paycheck in this city has been getting steadily bigger.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?
(A) The unemployment rate in the city is higher today than it was when Mayor Delmont took office.
(B) The average pay for jobs in the city was at a ten-year low when Mayor Delmont took office.
(C) Each year during Mayor Delmont's tenure, the average pay for jobs that were eliminated has been higher than the average pay for jobs citywide.
(D) Most of the jobs eliminated during Mayor Delmont's tenure were in declining industries.
(E) The average pay for jobs in the city is currently lower than it is for jobs in the suburbs surrounding the city.
The more frequently employees take time to exercise during working hours each week, the fewer sick days they take. Even employees who exercise only once a week during working hours take less sick time than those who do not exercise. Therefore, if companies started fitness programs, the absentee rate in those companies would decrease significantly.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) Employees who exercise during working hours occasionally fall asleep for short periods of time after they exercise.
(B) Employees who are frequently absent are the least likely to cooperate with or to join a corporate fitness program.
(C) Employees who exercise only once a week in their company's fitness program usually also exercise after work.
(D) Employees who exercise in their company's fitness program use their working time no more productively than those who do not exercise.
(E) Employees who exercise during working hours take slightly longer lunch breaks than employees who do not exercise.
Distressed by his own personal tragedies, the Roman philosopher Cicero once asked himself whether a wise person should try to achieve the Stoic ideal of complete emotionlessness. Cicero reasoned that, however desirable the goal may be, a wise person could never attain it, since emotions are not simply irrational urges. They are, rather, a product of one's estimate of the goodness and badness of the events, people, and actions one witnesses.
Which of the following is an assumption required by Cicero's reasoning?
(A) Wise people inevitably evaluate at least some of the things they observe.
(B) Irrationality makes evaluation of what one observes impossible.
(C) Wisdom precludes attempting to attain what one cannot.
(D) If evaluations are based only on reason, then they are inaccurate.
(E) A wise person will not evaluate what cannot be directly observed.