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逻辑第 4 套


When storing Renaissance oil paintings, museums conform to standards that call for careful control of the surrounding temperature and humidity, with variations confined within narrow margins. Maintaining this environment is very costly, and recent research shows that even old oil paint is unaffected by wide fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Therefore, museums could relax their standards and save money without endangering their Renaissance oil paintings.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Renaissance paintings were created in conditions involving far greater fluctuations in temperature and humidity than those permitted by current standards.

(B) Under the current standards that museums use when storing Renaissance oil paintings, those paintings do not deteriorate at all. 

(C) Museum collections typically do not contain items that are more likely to be vulnerable to fluctuations in temperature and humidity than Renaissance oil paintings. 

(D) None of the materials in Renaissance oil paintings other than the paint are vulnerable enough to relatively wide fluctuations in temperature and humidity to cause damage to the paintings.

(E) Most Renaissance oil paintings are stored in museums located in regions near the regions where the paintings were created.







A. 文艺复兴时期的画作是在一个温度湿度变化很大(大于现在的变化)的环境中创造出来的:创作时期的温度湿度变化和现在保存时期的温度湿度要求没有关系。

B. 在如今的标准下,那些画作一点儿都不会变坏:鉴于本选项是否定句,我们进行取非——在如今的标准下,那些画作会变坏。我们是基于“目前的标准没问题”这一前提下讨论“能不能进一步降低标准”。所以现在的标准是什么样的和结论无关。

C. 博物馆藏品不含有某些物质,这些物质比文艺复兴时期的油画对温湿度变化更敏感:鉴于本选项是否定句,我们进行取非——博物馆藏品含有某些物质,这些物质比文艺复兴时期的油画对温湿度变化更敏感。这是一个有陷阱的选项。虽然从实际情况来看,降低标准或许会对其他藏品造成不好的影响,但我们在结论里已经框定了范围——在不伤害文艺复兴油画的前提下,所以其他藏品如何不重要,只要不伤害结论中的油画即可。

D. 正确。除了油彩,画作中没有别的原材料会对温湿度变化足够敏感,以至于会对画作造成伤害:鉴于本选项是否定句,我们进行取非——除了油彩,画作中还有别的原材料会对温湿度变化足够敏感,以至于会对画作造成伤害。如果油画中有别的敏感物质,那我们就不能轻易降低标准,否则会伤害到文艺复兴油画。

E. 很多文艺复兴画作被保存在靠近其诞生地的博物馆中:画作的保存地点是否靠近诞生地点与降不降低标准无关。


In an experiment, one group of volunteers was shown words associated with money, such as "salary, whereas another group was shown neutral words. Afterward, individuals in both groups solved puzzles unrelated to money. Those who had been shown words associated with money were much less likely to request or offer help with the puzzles. The researchers concluded from this evidence that preoccupation with money makes people less cooperative.

Which of the following is an assumption the researchers' reasoning requires?

(A) At least some of the volunteers were preoccupied with money before being shown the words.

(B) Being shown the neutral words did not cause the volunteers to become preoccupied with subjects other than money.

(C) Most of the volunteers who were shown neutral words requested or offered help with the puzzles.

(D) Most of the volunteers in both groups succeeded in solving the puzzles, either with or without help.

(E) The volunteers who were shown neutral words were, on average, less preoccupied with money while solving the puzzles than the other volunteers were.







A. 至少有一些志愿者在被展示单词之前关注了钱:我们讨论的是“关注钱”对合作的影响,与他们什么时候关注钱无关。

B. 被展示中性词不会导致志愿者关注钱之外的物体:鉴于本选项是否定句,我们进行取非——被展示中性词会导致志愿者关注钱之外的物体。我们讨论的是“关注钱”和“合不合作”的关系,与其他物体无关。

C. 正确。大部分被展示了中性词的志愿者要求或者提供了帮助。如果我们取非——大部分被展示了中性词的志愿者并没有要求或者提供了帮助,那么说明被展示的词不管是钱还是别的都没有导致合作。钱和合作的因果关系就不成立了。所以,选项取非后削弱了结论。

D. 不管有没有寻求帮助,两组志愿者都成功解谜了:我们讨论的是解谜过程中有没有寻求合作,与解谜的结果无关。

E. 解谜过程中,被展示了中性词的志愿者更不关注钱:我们讨论的是解谜之前被展示单词带来的影响,与解谜过程中是否关注钱无关。


Lightbox, Inc., owns almost all of the movie theaters in Washington County and has announced plans to double the number of movie screens it has in the county within five years. Yet attendance at Lightbox's theaters is only just large enough for profitability now and the county's population is not expected to increase over the next ten years. Clearly, therefore, if there is indeed no increase in population, Lightbox's new screens are unlikely to prove profitable.

Which of the following, if true about Washington County, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Though little change in the size of the population is expected, a pronounced shift toward a younger, more affluent, and more entertainment-oriented population is expected to occur.

(B) The sales of snacks and drinks in its movie theaters account for more of Lightbox's profits than ticket sales do.

(C) In selecting the mix of movies shown at its theaters, Lightbox's policy is to avoid those that appeal to only a small segment of the moviegoing population.

(D) Spending on video purchases, as well as spending on video rentals, is currently no longer increasing.

(E) There are no population centers in the county that are not already served by at least one of the movie theaters that Lightbox owns and operates.


拥有Washington County绝大部分影院的Lightbox公司宣布接下来五年里要把W城的荧幕数量翻倍。但是目前的上座率刚刚可以盈利且接下来十年人口也不会以增加。因此,如果人口不再增加的话,Lightbox的新荧幕就挣不到钱。





A. 正确。虽然人口总数不变,但是人口分布会朝着更年轻、更富有、更偏爱娱乐方向移动:如果年轻富有又爱玩的人占的比重会多,那么即使人口总数不变,看电影的人还是有可能会增加,那么Lightbox的新荧幕就有可能会挣到钱。

B. 电影院靠饮料小吃挣的钱要比售票挣得钱更多:电影院具体的收入来源分布与新荧幕能不能挣到钱无关。

C. 在选片的时候,Lightbox的策略是避免受众群体小的影片:选片策略与新电影院能不能挣到钱无关。

D. 买碟和租碟都没有增加:碟片的买租情况与结论无关。

E. W城没有哪个商业中心是Lightbox还没入驻的:电影院的分布情况与结论无关。


Supply shortages and signs of growing demand are driving cocoa prices upward. Unusually severe weather in cocoa-producing regions—too much rain in Brazil and too little in West Africa—has limited production. Further, Europe and North America recently reported stronger demand for cocoa. In the first quarter, grinding of cocoa beans—the first stage in processing cocoa for chocolate—rose 8.1 percent in Europe and 16 percent in North America. Analysts have concluded that cocoa's price will continue to rise at least into the near future.

Which of the following would, if true, most strengthen the reasoning above?

(A) Ground cocoa beans can be stored for long periods before they spoil.    

(B) Several European and North American manufacturers that use cocoa have recently improved their processing capacity.    

(C) It takes new cocoa trees five or six years before they start bearing fruit.    

(D) Governments in Europe and North America are likely to change current restrictions on cocoa imports.    

(E) Historically, cocoa production has varied widely from year to year.   







A. 在腐烂前,可可豆被存贮了很久:存了多久与价格在未来会不会上涨无关。

B. 一些欧洲和北美的cocoa制造商近期提升了他们的加工产能:我们讨论的是供应情况对价格的影响,与中间商无关。

C. 正确。可可树要花5-6年才能结果:此选项是想告诉我们可可树要花很长时间才可以结果。如果我们取非——可可树“唰”的一下就能结果,那么供应问题就有可能解决了,未来cocoa的价格就不一定会持续上涨。此选项取非后可削弱。

D. 欧洲和北美的政府有可能会改变近期对cocoa进口的限制:此选项也没有交代限制会更严还是更宽松,所以我们并不知道这个变化对价格的影响。

E. 过去,cocoa的产量每年变化很大:过去的情况与未来无关。


Proposed new safety rules for Beach City airport would lengthen considerably the minimum time between takeoffs from the airport. In consequence, the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily. The city's operating budget depends heavily on taxes generated by tourist spending, and most of the tourists come by plane. Therefore, the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

The argument depends on assuming which of the following?

(A) There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed minimum.

(B) Few, if any, of the tourists who use Beach City airport do so when their main destination is a neighboring community and not Beach City itself.

(C) If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

(D) Increasing the minimum time between takeoffs is the only way to achieve necessary safety improvements without a large expenditure by the city government on airport enhancements.

(E) The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include a large increase in the number of passengers per flight.







A. 没有哪段时期,飞机起飞间隔是大于目前规定的最小值的:此选项与新规对收入的影响无关。

B. 很少的游客来B城机场是为了中转的:不管游客来机场的目的是什么,按理说只要他们来,就会带来收入。所以无论是中转还是最终目的地与收入变化无关。

C. 如果采纳了新规,游客的减少不会来自在B城低消费的游客的减少:不管哪部分人减少,按理说只要人少了收入就会变少。

D. 拉长飞机起飞间隔是避免大花费去提高安全性的唯一方法:是不是唯一方法与这个方法会带来什么影响无关。

E. 正确。应对新规的方法不包括增加每架飞机的载客量:鉴于本选项是否定句,我们进行取非——应对新规的方法包括增加每架飞机的载客量。如果每架飞机的载客量增加,那么即使飞机数量减少,游客总数也不见得会降低,用于城市运营的收入也不一定会减少。选项取非后削弱了结论。


Editorial: The roof of Northtown's municipal equipment-storage building collapsed under the weight of last week's heavy snowfall. The building was constructed recently and met local building-safety codes in every particular, except that the nails used for attaching roof supports to the building's columns were of a smaller size than the codes specify for this purpose. Clearly, this collapse exemplifies how even a single, apparently insignificant departure from safety standards can have severe consequences.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the editorial's argument?

(A) The only other buildings to suffer roof collapses from the weight of the snowfall were older buildings constructed according to less exacting standards than those in the codes.

(B) The amount of snow that accumulated on the roof of the equipment storage building was greater than the predicted maximum that was used in drawing up the safety codes.

(C) Because the equipment-storage building was not intended for human occupation, some safety-code provisions that would have applied to an office building did not apply to it.

(D) The municipality of Northtown itself has the responsibility for ensuring that buildings constructed within its boundaries meet the provisions of the building-safety codes.

(E) Because the equipment-storage building was used for storing snow removal equipment, the building was almost completely empty when the roof collapsed.







A. 其他由于大雪倒塌的建筑是那些依据不太严格的规定而建造的老式建筑:如果大雪导致其他建筑标准不严的房屋倒塌,反而说明或许小偏差和大后果有关系,加强了结论。

B. 正确。屋顶积雪的重量大于安全标准预设的最大积雪量:此选项给出了造成坍塌的他因——并不是因为钉子的这个小偏差,而是因为雪量大于预设量。因此,即使没有这个小偏差,也会有坍塌这个大后果。

C. 因为此房屋不是为了人类居住,所以有些写字楼用的安全标准并没有应用在这种房屋上:我们没有理由相信写字楼的安全标准就更严格更安全,所以此选项并没有解释为什么房子会坍塌。

D. Northtown的市政局有责任要求其境内的所有房屋达到安全标准:谁担责与结论里讨论的因果关系无关。

E. 因为此房屋是用来储存扫雪器具的,所以在屋顶坍塌的时候其里面几乎是空的:此选项只能说明坍塌没有造成什么损失,与坍塌的原因是什么无关。


To prevent a newly built dam on the Chiff River from blocking the route of fish migrating to breeding grounds upstream, the dam includes a fish pass, a mechanism designed to allow fish through the dam. Before the construction of the dam and fish pass, several thousand fish a day swam upriver during spawning season. But in the first season after the project's completion, only 300 per day made the journey. Clearly, the fish pass is defective.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Fish that have migrated to the upstream breeding grounds do not return down the Chiff River again.

(B) On other rivers in the region, the construction of dams with fish passes has led to only small decreases in the number of fish migrating upstream.

(C) The construction of the dam stirred up potentially toxic river sediments that were carried downstream.

(D) Populations of migratory fish in the Chiff River have been declining slightly over the last 20 years.

(E) During spawning season, the dam releases sufficient water for migratory fish below the dam to swim upstream.







A. 已经移到上游的鱼没有再返回下游:此选项讨论的是鱼的移动轨迹,无法解释结论中的因果关系。

B. 在此地区的别的河中,有通道的大坝导致游到上游的鱼群数量稍稍下降:与别的河无关。

C. 正确。大坝的建造搅动了河里的有毒物质,并带到了下游:此选项告诉我们游回上游的鱼群数量下降的他因——鱼被毒死了,和通道无关。

D. 过去20年里迁徙鱼群的数量稍稍下降:20年包含了未建大坝和建好大坝的时间,所以无法解释通道和数量变化的关系。

E. 产卵季期间,大坝释放了足够的水供鱼游回上游:如果选项取非——大坝没有释放足够的水,说明有可能是大坝拖了后腿而不是通道有问题。但我们要求选项本身可以削弱,取非后可以削弱是没有意义的。


Political Advertisement: Mayor Delmont's critics complain about the jobs that were lost in the city under Delmont's leadership. Yet the fact is that not only were more jobs created than were eliminated, but each year since Delmont took office the average pay for the new jobs created has been higher than that year's average pay for jobs citywide. So it stands to reason that throughout Delmont's tenure the average paycheck in this city has been getting steadily bigger.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?

(A) The unemployment rate in the city is higher today than it was when Mayor Delmont took office.

(B) The average pay for jobs in the city was at a ten-year low when Mayor Delmont took office.

(C) Each year during Mayor Delmont's tenure, the average pay for jobs that were eliminated has been higher than the average pay for jobs citywide.

(D) Most of the jobs eliminated during Mayor Delmont's tenure were in declining industries.

(E) The average pay for jobs in the city is currently lower than it is for jobs in the suburbs surrounding the city.







A. 如今城市的失业率要高于D市长接任时的失业率:我们讨论的是任职期间平均薪水的上涨问题,与接手时的失业率无关。

B. D市长接手时的平均薪水处于十年来最低的水平:接手时的平均薪水是不是最低无所谓,只要接手后有所上升即可。

C. 正确。D市长任职期间,每年被取消的工作的薪水要高于城市平均薪水:如果被取消的工作的薪水很高,那么平均工资不见得会增加。给个场景:比如,平均工资月薪5k,新增工作月薪6k,但取消的是月薪100万的职位,那么平均工资不见得会上涨。

D. D市长任职期间,被取消的都是夕阳产业里的工作:具体取消哪个行业的工作与结论无关。

E. 平均工资低于周边城市的平均工资:与周边城市的情况无关。


The more frequently employees take time to exercise during working hours each week, the fewer sick days they take. Even employees who exercise only once a week during working hours take less sick time than those who do not exercise. Therefore, if companies started fitness programs, the absentee rate in those companies would decrease significantly.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

(A) Employees who exercise during working hours occasionally fall asleep for short periods of time after they exercise.

(B) Employees who are frequently absent are the least likely to cooperate with or to join a corporate fitness program.

(C) Employees who exercise only once a week in their company's fitness program usually also exercise after work.

(D) Employees who exercise in their company's fitness program use their working time no more productively than those who do not exercise.

(E) Employees who exercise during working hours take slightly longer lunch breaks than employees who do not exercise.







A. 工作时间锻炼的员工偶尔会在锻炼后小睡一会儿:与能不能降低缺席率无关。

B. 正确。经常缺席的员工最不可能去参加这个项目:如果项目的目标人群根本不会参与这个项目,那项目等于白开,员工的缺席率也不会降下来。

C. 一周只锻炼一次的员工通常在下班后锻炼:锻炼的时间与缺席率能不能降低无关。

D. 参与锻炼项目的员工并不比不锻炼的员工工作得更有效率:工作效率与缺席率无关。

E. 工作时间锻炼的员工比不锻炼的员工花更长的时间午休:午休时长与缺席率无关。


Distressed by his own personal tragedies, the Roman philosopher Cicero once asked himself whether a wise person should try to achieve the Stoic ideal of complete emotionlessness. Cicero reasoned that, however desirable the goal may be, a wise person could never attain it, since emotions are not simply irrational urges. They are, rather, a product of one's estimate of the goodness and badness of the events, people, and actions one witnesses.

Which of the following is an assumption required by Cicero's reasoning?

(A) Wise people inevitably evaluate at least some of the things they observe.

(B) Irrationality makes evaluation of what one observes impossible.

(C) Wisdom precludes attempting to attain what one cannot.

(D) If evaluations are based only on reason, then they are inaccurate.

(E) A wise person will not evaluate what cannot be directly observed.







A. 正确。聪明的人会不可避免地对观察到的事物进行评估:如果选项取非——人们可以避免对事物进行评估,那么人们就不会产生情感,一个聪明的人就可以达到完全无情感状态了。选项取非后达到了削弱的作用。

B. 无理性会使得评估不可能:此选项与能否达到无情感状态无关。

C. 智慧会妨碍人们去获得某人无法获得的东西:此选项与能否达到无情感状态无关。

D. 如果评估是仅仅基于理性,那么它们就是不正确的:此选项与能否达到无情感状态无关。

E. 一个聪明的人不会评估那些无法直接观察到的事情:鉴于本选项是否定句,我们进行取非——一个聪明的人会评估那些无法直接观察到的事情。能否达到无感情状态取决于人们会不会做出评估这个行为,至于评估的对象是什么,无关。

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