# 《毕出21套》解析：逻辑第3套

## 逻辑第 3 套

1.

The recycling of municipal solid waste is widely seen as an environmentally preferable alternative to the prevailing practices of incineration and of dumping in landfills. Recycling is profitable, as the recycling programs already in operation demonstrate. A state legislator proposes that communities should therefore be required to adopt recycling and to reach the target of recycling 50 percent of all solid waste within 5 years.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the advisability of implementing the proposal?

(A) Existing recycling programs have been voluntary, with citizen participation ranging from 30 percent in some communities to 80 percent in others.

(B) Existing recycling programs have been restricted to that 20 percent of solid waste that, when reprocessed, can match processed raw materials in quality and price.

(C) Existing recycling programs have had recurrent difficulties finding purchasers for their materials, usually because of quantities too small to permit cost-effective pickup and transportation.

(D) Some of the materials that can be recycled are the very materials that, when incinerated, produce the least pollution.

(E) Many of the materials that cannot be recycled are also difficult to incinerate.

### 选项解析：

A． 目前的回收项目是自愿的，居民的参与率从30%到80%不等：居民的参与率并不等于回收率，所以30%-80%的参与率并不能帮我们判断回收率究竟能不能达到50%。

B． 正确。目前的回收项目被限制到20%的垃圾回收，这些垃圾能够匹配再加工原材料的质量和价格：如果为了再加工材料可以保质保价而设置了20%的上限，那么定50%的目标就有可能是不现实的，质疑了方案。

C． 目前的回收项目在找买家上有困难，通常是因为数量过小而导致取货、运输的性价比不高：如果我们可以实现50%的回收率，提高了数量，就可以解决这个困难了。此选项并不能削弱结论。

D． 可以回收的材料是那些在焚烧时产生最少污染的材料：本选项描述的是可回收材料的特点，与我们能不能达到50%的回收率无关。

E． 无法回收的材料也很难焚烧：本选项描述的是不可回收材料的特点，与我们能不能达到50%的回收率无关。

2.

Most of the world's supply of uranium currently comes from mines.  It is possible to extract uranium from seawater, but the cost of doing so is greater than the price that uranium fetches on the world market.  Therefore, until the cost of extracting uranium from seawater can somehow be reduced, this method of obtaining uranium is unlikely to be commercially viable.

Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in evaluating the argument?

(A) Whether the uranium in deposits on land is rapidly being depleted

(B) Whether most uranium is used near where it is mined

(C) Whether there are any technological advances that show promise of reducing the cost of extracting uranium from seawater

(D) Whether the total amount of uranium in seawater is significantly greater than the total amount of uranium on land

(E) Whether uranium can be extracted from freshwater at a cost similar to the cost of extracting it from seawater

### 选项解析：

A． 正确。是否陆地上U的储量在快速耗尽：如果陆地上的U快速耗完，那么就算海水取U成本高我们也不得不采取这个方法。

B． 是否使用U的地点靠近U被挖的地点：挖或者使用U的地点在哪里和我们的结论无关。

C． 是否有很好的技术前景能保证海水取U的成本降下来：我们是在“成本降不了”这个前提下讨论方法能不能商业可行，如果现在突然告诉我成本降下来了，相当于削弱了前提。

D． 是否海水里的U比陆地上的U多：无论谁多谁少，按理说，只要成本降不下来这个方法就不可行。

E． 是否淡水取U的成本和海水取U的成本相似：我们讨论的是海水取U的方法，与别的方法无关。

3.

In countries in which new life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable prices; those same drugs, where patented, command premium prices because the patents shield patent-holding manufacturers from competitors.  These facts show that future access to new life-sustaining drugs can be improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished everywhere.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacture is nevertheless a profitable enterprise.

(B) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations.

(C) In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented.

(D) Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that goes into the development of new drugs only if patents allow them to earn high profits.

(E) Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that do not grant such patents.

### 选项解析：

A． 在新药无法被专利的国家，制药商也能赚到钱：制药商能不能赚到钱，与未来能不能提高接触到新药的途径无关。

B． 不支持专利的国家是那些人口最多的国家：人口多少与结论无关。

C． 在一些国家，制药的某些过程可以被专利，而制作出来的药无法被专利：我们讨论的是取消新药的专利带来的影响，与制药过程有无专利无关。

D． 正确。仅当专利费带来很高利润的时候，制药公司才能负担得起新药的研制：如果没有专利，制药公司就没有能力研究新药，别说途径，到时候连新药都没得用了。

E． 有专利的国家通常会禁止从无专利国家来的进口：我们假设的场景是所有地方都没有专利制度，那此选项区分有无专利的国家是没有意义的。

4.

The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet.  The only cyclists seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers.  Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purposes of competition in bicycle races.

Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) The market for cheap, traditional bicycles cannot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

(B) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

(C) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recognized as standard for purposes of competition.

(D) The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacture a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

(E) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

### 选项解析：

A. 便宜自行车的市场不会扩张，除非竞赛自行车的市场扩张：市场的大小与革新会不会仅满足竞赛要求无关。

B. 比起主要制造商带来的革新，小作坊带来的革新更有可能提高竞赛自行车：谁发起的革新并不重要，我们讨论的是革新会不会局限于满足竞赛标准。

C. 正确。会参赛的自行车买家不会产生强烈的、竞赛所要求的标准之外的革新需求：鉴于本选项是否定句，我们进行取非——会参赛的自行车买家会产生强烈的、竞赛所要求的标准之外的革新需求。如果这些买家有除开比赛之外的需求，那么革新就不一定会局限于只满足竞赛所要求的标准。选项取非后起到了削弱作用。

D. 自行车制造商的技术保守主义是来自于他们的一个愿望，这个愿望是生产一种适用于不同国家市场的产品：技术保守主义的来源于革新的范围无关。

E. 设立标准的机构没有被告知革新的自行车设计：机构知不知情与革新的范围无关。

5.

Some airlines allegedly reduce fares on certain routes to a level at which they lose money, in order to drive competitors off those routes.  However, this method of eliminating competition cannot be profitable in the long run.  Once an airline successfully implements this method, any attempt to recoup the earlier losses by charging high fares on that route for an extended period would only provide competitors with a better opportunity to undercut the airline's fares.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) In some countries it is not illegal for a company to drive away competitors by selling a product below cost.

(B) Airline executives generally believe that a company that once underpriced its fares to drive away competitors is very likely to do so again if new competitors emerge.

(C) As part of promotions designed to attract new customers, airlines sometimes reduce their ticket prices to below an economically sustainable level.

(D) On deciding to stop serving particular routes, most airlines shift resources to other routes rather than reduce the size of their operations.

(E) When airlines dramatically reduce their fares on a particular route, the total number of air passengers on that route increases greatly.

### 选项解析：

A． 在某些国家，通过低价售卖产品赶走竞争者的做法并不违法：我们讨论的是某种做法会带来的结果是什么，至于这个方法能不能做 是上一步的事情，已经超出了讨论范围。

B． 正确。航空高管相信，如果新的竞争者出现，一个通过降价赶走竞争者的公司非常有可能会再次这么做：如果对手一进来，某航空公司就减价，一进来就减价一进来就减价，如此循环，那么对手也没辙，也就不愿意再进来了。

C． 为了吸引新的顾客，航空公司有时会把价格降到低于经济可持续的水平：我们讨论的是某种做法会带来的结果是什么，与这种做法的目的无关。

D． 在决定停止某些航线的营业后，大部分航空公司会把资源转移到别的航线上，而不是减少运营规模：此选项讨论的是被挤走后，公司的做法，与我们的结论无关

E． 当航空公司大幅度降价后，此航线的乘客数量会大幅度增加：我们讨论的是一个长期的结果，此选项描述的是一个暂时的现象，无关。

6.

Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40.  SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus.  Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

### 选项解析：

A． SV40作为研究工具在实验室被广泛使用：SV40在实验室使用与疫苗是不是病毒的来源无关。

B． 如今，研制疫苗技术的进步可以阻止SV40的污染：现在的疫苗与我们讨论的1960年的疫苗无关。

C． 可以追溯到1960年的疫苗样本依旧展示出这种病毒的踪迹：即使1960的疫苗中有SV40，但我们无法判断这个病毒是否传染给了人类。所以这个选项无法加强结论。

D． 得M病的病例中，很少一部分没有暴露于asbestos的历史：如果大部分人有暴露于asbestos的历史，反而说明病毒的来源并不是来自疫苗，而是来自asbestos的暴露史，此选项削弱了结论。

E． 正确。在芬兰，疫苗从未被污染，M病人的样本没有包含SV40：鉴于本选项是否定句，我们进行取非——在芬兰，疫苗从未被污染，M病人的样本包含了SV40。如果疫苗没被污染，病人样本中也有SV40，说明疫苗并不是病毒的来源。选项取非后削弱了结论。

7.

Over the last five years, demand for hotel rooms in Cenopolis has increased significantly, as has the average price Cenopolis hotels charge for rooms.  These trends are projected to continue for the next several years.  In response to this economic forecast, Centennial Commercial, a real estate developer, is considering a plan to convert several unoccupied office buildings it owns in Cenopolis into hotels in order to maximize its revenues from these properties.

Which of the following would it be most useful for Centennial Commercial to know in evaluating the plan it is considering?

(A) Whether the population of Cenopolis is expected to grow in the next several years

(B) Whether demand for office space in Cenopolis is projected to increase in the near future

(C) Whether the increased demand for hotel rooms, if met, is likely to lead to an increase in the demand for other travel-related services

(D) Whether demand for hotel rooms has also increased in other cities where Centennial owns office buildings

(E) Whether, on average, hotels that have been created by converting office buildings have fewer guest rooms than do hotels that were built as hotels

### 选项解析：

A. 是否C城的人口会在接下里几年增加：C城人口的变化与我们的方案无关。

B. 正确。是否C城的写字楼需求会在未来增加：如果对写字楼的需求增加，那么将其变成酒店或许不会实现利益最大化，质疑了方案。

C. 是否酒店的需求增加会导致其他旅游相关服务的需求增加：其他旅游相关服务与我们的方案无关。

D. 是否在其他此开发商拥有房产的城市，酒店需求也增加了：其他城市的情况与方案无关。

E. 是否由写字楼改装的酒店能容纳更少的房客：无论能容纳更多更少，按理说如果没有别的情况发生，改为酒店就可以获取收益。

8.

Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently entails an even greater such risk per barrel of oil.  Therefore, if we are to reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

(A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.

(B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.

(C) The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be controlled by careful management.

(D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage.

(E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore.

### 选项解析：

A. 正确。集装箱可以被轻易改造，由此减少漏油风险：如果此选项成立，我们就不一定必须偏向近海石油钻探这一方法，集装箱或许是个更好的减少漏油风险的方法。

B. 集装箱造成的漏油比近海石油钻探造成的漏油更严重：如果集装箱更危险，我们更应该采取题干中提倡的方法。此选项加强了结论。

C. 近海石油钻探造成的环境影响可以被控制：我们讨论的是污染前应该用哪个方法，此选项讨论的是污染之后的应对方法，无关。

D. 近海石油钻探通常会毁坏海床，而集装箱不会：我们讨论的是“漏油”这一风险，与别的风险无关。

E. 集装箱方法比近海石油钻探更便宜：我们是为了减少漏油风险，与成本无关。

9.

In comparison to the standard typewriter keyboard, the EFCO keyboard, which places the most-used keys nearest the typist's strongest fingers, allows faster typing and results in less fatigue.  Therefore, replacement of standard keyboards with the EFCO keyboard will result in an immediate reduction of typing costs.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion drawn above?

(A) People who use both standard and EFCO keyboards report greater difficulty in the transition from the EFCO keyboard to the standard keyboard than in the transition from the standard keyboard to the EFCO keyboard.

(B) EFCO keyboards are no more expensive to manufacture than are standard keyboards and require less frequent repair than do standard keyboards.

(C) The number of businesses and government agencies that use EFCO keyboards is increasing each year.

(D) The more training and experience an employee has had with the standard keyboard, the more costly it is to train that employee to use the EFCO keyboard.

(E) Novice typists can learn to use the EFCO keyboard in about the same amount of time it takes them to learn to use the standard keyboard.

### 选项解析：

A. 两种键盘都使用的人发现：由EFCO键盘转为标准键盘的难度＞由标准键盘转为EFCO键盘的难度：两种键盘互相转换的难度比较，与降低打字成本无关。

B. 与标准键盘相比，生产EFCO的成本较低，且需要维修的频率较低：我们讨论的是打字成本，与生产成本、维修成本无关。

C. 使用EFCO键盘的公司和政府机构的数量在增加：与打字成本无关。

D. 正确。使用标准键盘的经验越丰富，这个打字员转为EFCO键盘所需的训练成本就越高：此选项直接指出，如果贸然换成EFCO键盘，可能要花费更多的时间、费用去适应，那么我们就无法立刻降低打字成本。

E. 无论是EFCO键盘还是标准键盘，初学打字员会花一样的时间学会：与打字成本能不能降低无关。

10.

Robot satellites relay important communications and identify weather patterns.  Because the satellites can be repaired only in orbit, astronauts are needed to repair them.  Without repairs, the satellites would eventually malfunction.  Therefore, space flights carrying astronauts must continue.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument above?

(A) Satellites falling from orbit because of malfunctions burn up in the atmosphere.

(B) Although satellites are indispensable in the identification of weather patterns, weather forecasters also make some use of computer projections to identify weather patterns.

(C) The government, responding to public pressure, has decided to cut the budget for space flights and put more money into social welfare programs.

(D) Repair of satellites requires heavy equipment, which adds to the amount of fuel needed to lift a spaceship carrying astronauts into orbit.

(E) Technical obsolescence of robot satellites makes repairing them more costly and less practical than sending new, improved satellites into orbit.

### 选项解析：

A． 失灵后脱轨的卫星会在大气中燃烧：此选项讨论的是卫星的下场，与结论无关。
B． 虽然卫星对于识别天气特征是不可缺少的，但是天气预测员也会用电脑来预测天气特征：与结论一点儿关系都没有。
C． 由于公众压力，政府决定减少载人飞船上的预算，转而投资社会福利项目：我们讨论的是需不需要继续载人飞船，与政府把钱花在哪里无关。
D． 维修卫星需要很重的设备，这会使载人飞船需要更多的燃料：此选项讨论的是技术层面的事情，与需不需要继续载人飞船无关。
E． 正确。与发射新的更先进的卫星相比，卫星的技术衰败使得维修它们更贵更不实用：如果发射新卫星性价比更高的话，我们何苦派人去维修旧的呢。那么载人飞船就不需要再继续了。