《毕出21套》解析:语法第3套

毕出 ·

语法第 3 套

1.  

According to findings derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the area of the brain in which a second or third language is stored depends on the age of the language learner; whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, language areas overlap in a young child.


(A) whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner,

(B) whereas for adults each language occupies a distinct area of the brain and

(C) each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult, while

(D) each language in adults occupied a distinct area of the brain, while

(E) each language occupying a distinct area of the brain for an adult learner, and


解析:

A. 正确。

B. 分号需要连接两个独立的完整句,此选项中,分号后面没有主句,只有一个whereas引导的状语从句,属于语法错误。

C. they没有合理的指代对象,错误。

D. in adults做定语修饰language,意为“在成年人里的语言”,语意有误。

E. 分号后面,and身后是完整的句子,但身前并没有完整的句子可以与之并列,属于语法错误。

2. 

These restrictions put a strain on the hospital's generators and the water supply and sewage system, which both depend on electric pumps.


(A) generators and the water supply and sewage system, which both depend 

(B) generators and on the water supply as well as the sewage system, which depend 

(C) generators; the water supply and the sewage system, both depend 

(D) generators, the water supply and the sewage system, both depending 

(E) generators as well as on the water supply and the sewage system, both depend


解析:

A. 正确。“the water supply and sewage system”意为“给排水系统”;which引导的定语从句,修饰generators and system。

B. as well as表并列的时候,后面单词的地位会弱于前面单词的地位;但这里供给和排水是地位相当的,要用and,不能用as well as。

C. 分号后面,主语是system,谓语是depend,但主谓之间不能平白无故隔逗号,属于语法错误。

D. 逗号后面直接一个名词,从长相来看是同位语,但这里的the water supply and the sewage system并不是前面哪个名词或者动作的同位语,语意有误。

E. depend和put两个谓语中间没有连词连接,属于语法错误。

3. 

Not one of the potential investors is expected to make an offer to buy First Interstate Bank until a merger agreement is signed that includes a provision for penalties if the deal were not to be concluded.


(A) is expected to make an offer to buy First Interstate Bank until a merger agreement is signed that includes a provision for penalties if the deal were

(B) is expected to make an offer for buying First Interstate Bank until they sign a merger agreement including a provision for penalties if the deal was

(C) is expected to make an offer to buy First Interstate Bank until a merger agreement be signed by them with a provision for penalties if the deal were

(D) are expected to make an offer for buying First Interstate Bank until it signs a merger agreement with a provision for penalties included if the deal was

(E) are expected to be making an offer to buy First Interstate Bank until they sign a merger agreement including a provision for penalties if the deal were


解析:

A. 正确。If the deal were not to be concluded是虚拟语气,类似我们常说的“if I were you;if I were a boy”。这里用虚拟语气还是用普通的过去时if the deal was not to be concluded都可以。这里并不是一个区分点。

B. they没有合理的指代对象。如果指前面出现的“potential investors”是不合逻辑的,因为他们只是“潜在”的投资者,还不属于公司的一份子,那逻辑上是不可能代表公司去签署任何协议。

C. them没有合理的指代对象,错误同B。

D. 主语为not one of investors,是单数,谓语需要用is。此选项出现了主谓不一致的错误。

E. 主谓不一致错误同D。

4. 

In an attempt to guarantee the security of its innovative water purification method, the company required each employee to sign a confidentiality agreement prohibiting that its water purification methods be disclosed to companies using an analogous purification process.  


(A)prohibiting that its water purification methods be disclosed to companies

(B)prohibiting them from the disclosing of its water purification methods to any company

(C)prohibiting disclosure of its water purification methods to any company

(D)that would prohibit them from disclosure of its water purification methods to companies

(E)that would prohibit its water purification methods to be disclosed to a company


解析:

A. prohibit的宾语从句中使用了动词原形“be disclosed”。但语法规定,只有谓语动词是建议,命令,和规定的时候,后面宾语从句中的动词才可以用原形。

B. them在整句话中没有合理的指代对象。

C. 正确。

D. them没有指代对象,错误同B。

E. prohibit的宾语为methods,但逻辑上我们要禁止的并不是这个“方法”,而是要禁止“泄漏”。所以,此选项出现了语意问题。


5. 

A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests that wearing a shoulder seat belt without wearing a lap belt will be a greater risk of some injuries to drivers and passengers than if they were to wear no seat belt at all.


(A) be a greater risk of some injuries to drivers and passengers than if they were to wear

(B) be of greater risk to drivers and passengers of receiving some injuries than it would be if they wore.

(C) cause drivers and passengers to be at a greater risk for some injuries than to wear

(D) produce drivers and passengers who have a greater risk of receiving some injuries than they would wearing

(E) place drivers and passengers at greater risk of receiving some injuries than will wearing


解析:

A. 宾语从句抽主干:wearing a shoulder seat belt without wearing a lap belt(主) will be(谓) a risk(补),意为“系部分安全带”这件事是一个风险,但系部分安全带这件事本身是没有危险的,只能说这件事会带来一些别的风险。所以此选项出现了语意错误。

B. 宾语从句的主干为:wearing a shoulder seat belt without wearing a lap belt will be of greater risk,意为“系部分安全带”这件事是有风险的,语意错误同A。

C. than身后的to wear只能和身前的to be at a greater risk对应,此时将than身后的句子还原为:wearing a shoulder seat belt without wearing a lap belt will cause drivers and passengers to wear no seat belt at all,意为“系部分安全带会导致司机和乘客不系安全带”,语意错误。

D. 宾语从句抽主干为:wearing a shoulder seat belt without wearing a lap belt(主) will produce(谓) drivers and passengers(宾),意为“系部分安全带这件事会生产司机和乘客”,语意有误。

E. 正确。


6. 

The contractor and the engineer agree on the cause of the bridge failure, but both blame the other.


(A) both blame the other

(B) each blames the other

(C) each blame the other person

(D) both are blaming the other

(E) each blames one another


解析:

A. both意为“两个人”,the other表示“两个人中的另外一个”。如果主语已经是两个人的话,就没有另外一个人之说了。我们不能说“两个人都责备两个人中的另外一个”,只能说“两个人中的一个责备两个人中的另外一个”。

B. 正确。each表示每一个,此选项意为两个人中的每一个都在责备另一个,即为“互相责备”。

C. each是“每一个”的意思,后面谓语动词应该用单三。此选项出现了主谓不一致的错误。

D. both用法错误同A。

E. 三者或三者以上,我们说另一个的时候用“one another”。但这句话中只出现了两个人,指另一个的时候用“the other”就可以了。


7.

Were it not for the fusion-powered heat and radiation that rush from its core, instead its own weight would cause a star to collapse.


(A)instead its own weight would cause a star to collapse

(B)instead a star would have collapsed under its own weight

(C)a star would have to be collapsing under its own weight

(D)a star would collapse under its own weight

(E)its own weight would have caused a star’s collapse


解析:

Were it not for...是虚拟语气倒装,还原为:if it were not for...

A. instead表转折,但前后是表“如果”的条件关系,用词有误。

B. instead错误同A。

C. 和D没有成分差异,只是时态不同。这里没有必要用“be collapsing”这样的进行时。

D. 正确。under its weight是collapse的状语。

E. 主句抽主干:weight caused collapse,意为“重量造成坍塌”,但重量是不会直接造成坍塌的,它只是坍塌的一个条件。所以如D中所写,作状语修饰坍塌更合理。

8.

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.


(A)than

(B)than born

(C)than they were

(D)than there had been

(E)than had been born


解析:

A. 正确。than身后的under it和前面的over the age of thirty对应,作women的定语。补回than后面被省略的成分为:babies were born to women under it.(it指代the age of thirty)。

B. 如果than后面加了born,under it此时变成born的状语,成了baby出生的时间为三十岁以下,语意有误。

C. under it修饰谓语动词,错误同B。

D. than身后的句子补回被省略的部分为:there had been women under it(这里有三十岁以下的女性).此时,选项将“孩子出生”和“这里有女性”进行了比较,语意有误。

E. under it修饰born,错误同B。

9.

Research on the reintroduction of large carnivores such as bears and wolves has implications both for the modern-day debate over the appropriateness of reintroduction programs and for the historical debate over what happened 10,000 to 50,000 years ago when one particular predator, human beings, expanded their territory and encountering large numbers of native prey.


(A) human beings, expanded their territory and encountering

(B) human beings, expanded their territory to have encountered

(C) the human being, expanded its territory and encountered

(D) the human being, had expanded its territory to encounter

(E) the human being, had expanded their territory and encountered


解析:

A. their没有合理的指代对象。human beings是解释说明predator的同位语,逻辑上扩张领土的是捕食者,而不是同位它的“人类”。

比如:小明, a boy, met his friend. 逻辑上,小明遇到的一定是“小明的朋友”,而不是“男孩的朋友”,男孩只是小明的一个同位语,所以his肯定指代小明而非boy。

B. their没有指代对象,错误同A。

C. expand和encounter并列,但逻辑上,expand和encounter是具有逻辑关系的。一定是“为了遇到更多的猎物”,才会“扩张领土”。所以,这两个动作并不能单纯的并列在一起。

D. 正确。to encounter做expand的目的状语。

E. their没有指代对象,错误同A。


10.

Though subject to the same wild-animal control efforts that killed off almost all the wolves in North America over the past century, the coyote's amazing ability of adapting to the presence of humans has enabled it to expand its range into Alaska and Central America.


(A)coyote's amazing ability of adapting to the presence of humans has enabled it to expand its

(B)coyote, because of its amazing ability of adapting to the presence of humans, have been able to expand their

(C)coyote, because of its amazing ability to adapt to the presence of humans, has been able to expand its

(D)amazing ability of the coyote to adapt to the presence of humans have enabled it to expand the

(E)amazing ability of the coyote to adapt to the presence of humans has enabled it to expand the


解析:

A. Though subject to...是伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致。此选项中,主语为ability(能力),逻辑上我们不能说“能力受制于野生动物控制措施”,应该是coyote(野狼)受制。

B. 主语为coyote,单数,谓语动词是have been,出现了主谓不一致的错误。

C. 正确。

D. 主语为ability,语意错误同A。

E. 主语为ability,语意错误同A。

11.

In an attempt to produce premium oysters, a firm in Scotland has developed a prototype of a submersible oyster farm, sitting below the surface of the ocean, and it provides ideal conditions for the mollusks' growth.  


(A)farm, sitting below the surface of the ocean, and it provides

(B)farm, sitting below the surface of the ocean for providing

(C)farm that sits below the surface of the ocean and providing

(D)farm that sits below the surface of the ocean and provides

(E)farm that is sitting below the surface of the ocean and it provides


解析:

A. sitting...是伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致。代入后为:the firm sits below the surface. 但逻辑上,应该是oyster farm(牡蛎养殖场)坐落在海下面,而不是公司坐落在海下面。

B. sitting逻辑主语有误,同A。

C. and身后的providing往前找没有并列对象,属于语法错误。

D. 正确。

E. and身后出现了完整句,此时“it provides condition”需要和前面的完整句“a firm has developed a prototype”并列。但“提供良好的环境”是牡蛎养殖场的特点,应该和“坐落在海下面”并列,修饰farm。

12.

Deborah Aguiar-Velez, founder of Sistemas Corporation, has written a computer textbook in Spanish for people who speak Spanish and so then do not have to rely on translations from English.


(A)for people who speak Spanish and so then

(B)for people who speak Spanish, and then they

(C)for people speaking Spanish who

(D)so that people who speak Spanish

(E)so that people can speak Spanish and then


解析:

A. who引导的定语从句里,有两个并列的谓语动词:speak & do not have to rely on,说明这帮人具备的特点有两个:1. 说西班牙语 2.不需要依赖翻译。但此时此选项的字面意思为:Deborah用西班牙语写了一本电脑教材,针对的是“说西班牙语 且不需要依赖翻译的”人,那这个逻辑是很奇怪的——如果这帮人的特点是不需要翻译,Deborah还写这本书干嘛呢。所以此选项有语意错误。

B. and身后是完整句“他们不需要依赖翻译”,和前面的完整句“Deborah写了一本书”并列,如果用连词and连接,说明前后的句子是单纯的“并且”的逻辑关系。但逻辑上,一定是“因为Deborah写了一本书,所以人们不需要依赖翻译”这样的因果关系更合理。

C. speaking Spanish和who引导的定语从句均修饰people,语意错误同A。

D. 正确。so that表示前面两句存在因果关系。意为“因为Deborah写了一本书,所以人们不需要依赖翻译”。

E. so that身后的句意为“人们可以说西班牙语”,此时整句话为“因为Deborah写了一本书,所以人们会说西班牙语”。这个逻辑是不对的,Deborah写的只是电脑教材,并不是语言教材,此因果关系不成立。


13.

Deserts are inhabited with several distinct animal species, with each their own method of adapting to long periods of moisture shortage.


(A)with several distinct animal species, with each their

(B)with distinctly several animal species, each with its

(C)by several distinct animal species, each with its

(D)by several distinct animal species, having each its

(E)by several distinct animal species, that each has their


解析:

A. with several distinct animal species作状语修饰inhabit,意为“随着一些物种,沙漠被占领了”。但逻辑上应该是沙漠“被”这些物种占领,被动语态中的by sth是逻辑主语。Deserts are inhabited by animal species = Animal species inhabited deserts.

with each their...是状语修饰inhabit,但“有自己的方法”应该是species自己的特点,与inhabit这个动作无关。

each身后应该用its,不能用their。应该是“每一个用它自己的方法”,而不是“每一个用它们的方法”。

B. with distinctly several animal species作状语修饰inhabit错误同A。

C. 正确。Deserts are inhabited by animal species = Animal species inhabited deserts.

D. having是伴随状语,其逻辑主语为deserts,但并不是沙漠有自己的方法,而是species有自己的方法。

E. that不知道引导了什么从句,不符合语法规则。

14.

Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.


(A)Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

(B)Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

(C)Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

(D)Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

(E)Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating


解析:

A. Because引导的原因状语从句的主干为:there(主) are()谓 provisions(补);主句的主干为:they have stimulated disputes。整句话的字面意思为“因为这里有条款,所以条款刺激了国际争端”。逻辑上,应该是因为条款“规定”了什么事情,才会引起争端,仅仅“有”这样一个条款,是无法刺激国际争端的。

B. 正确。Because引导的原因状语从句的主干为:the code provides(规定)that...;整句话的字面意思为“因为法律规定了一件事,所以此法律刺激了国际争端”。

C. stimulating...是伴随状语,其逻辑主语为tiny islets,但逻辑上“小岛”是无法刺激国际争端的。

D. Because引导的原因状语从句的主干为:tiny islets can be the basis;整句话的字面意思为“因为小岛是基础,所以此法律刺激了国际争端”。很明显,前后两件事完全没关系。

E. 整句话缺少主句,属于语法错误。


15.

The first shots of the American Revolution, fired at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, were, according to legend, heard around the world, but news of these shots, which were sent by swift messenger, took four days in reaching New York City as well as another additional eleven days to reach Charleston, South Carolina.


(A)shots, which were sent by swift messenger, took four days in reaching New York City as well as another additional eleven days

(B)shots that was sent by swift messenger took four days in order to reach New York City, and also another eleven days

(C)shots that were sent by swift messenger took four days to reach New York City and another eleven days

(D)shots took four days by swift messenger in order to reach New York City and another eleven days in addition

(E)shots took four days by swift messenger to reach New York City and another eleven days


解析:

A. which引导的定语从句修饰news(因为逻辑上被信使送出去的一定是新闻news,而不是枪声shots),但news是不可数名词,谓语动词应该用单数形式。此选项出现了主谓不一致的错误。

B. in order to引导目的状语,但“花了某人一些时间做某事”应该用take sb some time to do sth,to do sth为宾补,不能用in order to。

C. were做news的谓语动词,主谓不一致错误同A。

D. in order to做目的状语,错误同B。

E. 正确。

16.

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

 

(A)Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

(B)Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

(C)Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

(D)Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

(E)Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,


解析:

A. 主干提取:conception(主) was(谓) as a substitute(补),意为“观点是作为一个替代品”,但逻辑上应该是“收音机是一个替代品”。此选项有语意错误。

B. but是并列连词,身后出现了which引导的定语从句,但身前并没有定语从句可以与之并列,语法有误。

C. 正确。分号前后的两句话形成对比关系:M把radio设想为一个私聊工具;但是,它实际成了一个公放工具。

D. which引导定语从句,勉强接受可以跳跃修饰radio,描述radio本身的一个特点。但此时整句话没有了对比关系。相比之下,radio本来的用途和实际用途应该放在两个主句里,形成转折关系更合理。

E. 这句话缺少转折关系,错误同D。


17.

When working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal business issues for the global manager.


(A)When working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal business issues for the global manager.

(B)When they work with overseas clients, understanding cultural norms is at least of equal importance to the global manager as grasping the pivotal business issues.

(C)For global managers working with overseas clients, understanding cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal business issues.

(D)For global managers working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important to them as that they grasp the pivotal business issues.

(E)Global managers working with overseas clients find an understanding of cultural norms to be equally important as grasping the pivotal business issues.


解析:

A. When working...是伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致,代入:an understanding works with clients. (一个理解和客户工作),逻辑上应该是人和客户工作。此选项有语意错误。

B. they在全句中没有合理指代。

C. 正确。

D. For global managers是状语修饰is important,to them(指代managers)也是状语修饰is important。此时,“对managers来说”说了两遍,出现了赘余问题。

as身后出现的that引导的从句往前找并没有对应的比较对象。

E. 抽主干:managers(主) find(谓) an understanding(宾) to be important(补).此时承受find这个动作的是an understanding,但我们不能说“管理者发现了一个理解”,可以说“管理者发现了一件事(即,从句作宾语)”,然后这件事是“理解很重要”。

18.

In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750,000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches. 

 

(A)leaking its cargo of 750,000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of

(B)with its cargo of 750,000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted

(C)and its cargo of 750,000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting

(D)while it leaked its cargo of 750,000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of

(E)so that its cargo of 750,000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting


解析:

A. leaking和causing均为伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致。但逻辑上并不是油驳船造成了污染,应该是油驳船搁浅,油泄漏,然后油泄漏这件事导致了污染。

在GMAT当中,我们要找最直接的因果关系。如果是A→B→C,那就不能说A→C。

B. and身后出现了完整句,和前面的完整句并列。但油污染了海滩应该是油泄漏的结果,而不是和油驳船搁浅并列。

C. 正确。polluting...做伴随状语,修饰leak。表明污染海滩是油泄漏的结果。

D. cause的主语为油驳船,逻辑错误同A。

E. they没有合理的指代对象。

19.

Rivaling the pyramids of Egypt or even the ancient cities of the Maya as an achievement, the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete them.


(A)took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete them

(B)took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete it

(C)took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete

(D)700,000 artisans took more than 36 years to complete

(E)to complete them took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years


解析:

A. them没有合理的指代对象。

B. took的主语是兵马俑,此时后半句话和主语连起来为“the army took artisans 36 years to complete the army”,意为“兵马俑花了工匠36年去完成兵马俑”,很明显,这个it赘余。就像我们一般说“这个作业花了我仨小时去完成”,但不会说“这个作业花了我仨小时去完成这个作业”。

C. 正确。

D. and身后的句子为“artisans took more than 36 years to complete”,意为“工匠花了36年去完成”,至于完成了什么,没有交待,complete身后缺宾语,导致整句话没说完。

E. them没有合理的指代对象。


20.

Slated for demolition in 1970, local residents formed a foundation to preserve Edward Hopper's boyhood home, soliciting donations and contributing time and expertise to the restoration.


(A) local residents formed a foundation to preserve Edward Hopper's boyhood home, soliciting donations and contributing time and expertise to the

(B) a foundation was formed by local residents to preserve Edward Hopper's boyhood home; they solicited donations and contributed time and expertise to its

(C) Edward Hopper's boyhood home was saved, with local residents forming a foundation to preserve it, soliciting donations, and they contributed time and expertise to its

(D) Edward Hopper's boyhood home was saved by local residents, who formed a foundation for its preservation, solicited donations, and contributed time and expertise to its

(E) the boyhood home of Edward Hopper was saved when a foundation was formed by local residents who wanted to preserve it, to solicit donations, and contribute time and expertise to the


解析:

A. Slated for demolition in 1970(1970年的时候面临拆迁)是过去分词做伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致,但不能说residents(居民)面临拆迁,只能是房子面临拆迁。

B. 主句主语为foundation,但也不能说基金会面临拆迁,语意有误同A。

C. “with local residents forming a foundation to preserve it”是独立主格修饰was saved; “soliciting donations”是伴随状语修饰forming;and身后的“they contributed…”是完整句,和前面的完整句“home was saved”并列。逻辑上,form,solicit,contribute三者是并列关系,是居民为了救房子做出的一系列事情,这三者不能互相修饰或者和was saved并列。此选项出现了语意错误。

D. 正确。

E. to preserve it, to solicit donations, and contribute time and expertise并列形式有误。要不然是“to preserve it, to solicit donations, and TO contribute time and expertise”,要不然是“to preserve it, solicit donations, and contribute time and expertise”。不能只给第一和第二个动词前面加to。


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