《毕出21套》解析:语法第1套

毕出 ·

语法第1套

1.

Using study groups managed by the principal popular organizations and political parties, the Swedish public was informed by the government about energy and nuclear power.


(A) the Swedish public was informed by the government about energy and nuclear power

(B) the government informed the Swedish public about energy and nuclear power

(C) energy and nuclear power information was given to the Swedish public by the government

(D) information about energy and nuclear power was given to the Swedish public by the government

(E) the public of Sweden was given energy and nuclear power information by the government


解析:

句首“using study groups…”是伴随状语,use的逻辑主语和主句主语一样;划线部分开始是整句话的主句。逻辑上,只能是“政府”去使用学习小组,不能是“公众”或者“信息”。所以,选B。


2.

Over the next few years, increasing demands on the Chattahoochee River, which flows into the Apalachicola River, could alter the saline content of Apalachicola Bay, which would rob the oysters there of their flavor, and to make them decrease in size, less distinctive, and less in demand.


(A) which would rob the oysters there of their flavor, and to make them decrease in size

(B) and it would rob the oysters there of their flavor, make them smaller

(C) and rob the oysters there of their flavor, making them decrease in size

(D) robbing the oysters there of their flavor and making them smaller

(E) robbing the oysters there of their flavor, and making them decrease in size


解析:

A. and后面出现to do结构,但前面并没有可以并列的to do结构,属于语法错误。

B. it没有合理的指代对象:不能是“盐度”或者“海湾”抢夺牡蛎的味道;and后面出现了完整句,此句有两个谓语动词:rob和make,但它俩中间缺少并列连词,属于语法错误。

C. 此选项中,rob和alter是并列关系,两个动作之间没有逻辑关系;making做伴随状语修饰rob。但逻辑上,“抢夺牡蛎味道”和“尺寸变小”是盐度改变带来的两个结果——因为河里的成分变了,所以牡蛎的味道会改变且大小会变。所以,rob和make一起做alter 的伴随状语更合适。

D. 正确。robing和making是alter的伴随状语,其逻辑主语是整句话的主句主语:demands。

E. 此选项本身没有很大的问题,只能说和D相比,making前的逗号是不必要的。加了这个逗号,会让人感觉robing..是插入语,making在和前面的主句并列,但making和alter并列属于语法错误。

3.

Denver, Colorado, which devoted $1 billion to the commercial development of its downtown, now it is investing $1 billion additionally in downtown residential construction, building more than 1,000 apartments within the next year, more than have been constructed over the last four years.


(A) which devoted $1 billion to the commercial development of its downtown, now it is investing $1 billion additionally 

(B) which devoted $1 billion to the commercial development of its downtown and is now investing an additional $1 billion

(C) after having devoted $1 billion to the commercial development of its downtown, now it invests $1 billion in addition

(D) after it devoted $1 billion to the commercial development of its downtown, is now additionally investing $1 billion 

(E) after devoting $1 billion to the commercial development of its downtown, is now investing an additional $1 billion


解析:

A. Denver是整句话的主语,但后面又出现了it,造成一句话主语重复,属于语法错误。

B. Denver之后全是定语从句里的成分,造成整句话没有谓语动词,属于语法错误。

C. 同A,Denver和it重复,属于语法错误。

D. additionally作状语修饰动作invest,但逻辑上并不是“额外地做动作”,而是“额外的一个东西”。因为前面明确表示,Denver已经投了$1 billion,那么现在应该是投了另外一笔$1 billion,所以应该是additional做定语修饰$1 billion,即“额外的一笔钱”

E. 正确。

4. 

A ruined structure found at Aqaba, Jordan, was probably a church, as indicated in its eastward orientation and by its overall plan, as well as artifacts, such as glass oil-lamp fragments, found at the site.


(A) A ruined structure found at Aqaba, Jordan, was probably a church, as indicated in its eastward orientation and by its overall plan, as well as

(B) A ruined structure found at Aqaba, Jordan, once probably being a church, was indicated by its eastward orientation, overall plan, and

(C) Indicating that a ruined structure found at Aqaba, Jordan, was probably a church were its eastward orientation and overall plan, but also the

(D) A ruined structure found at Aqaba, Jordan, was probably a church, as indicates its eastward orientation and overall plan, as well as the

(E) That a ruined structure found at Aqaba, Jordan, was probably a church is indicated by its eastward orientation and overall plan, as well as by the


解析:

A. as indicated…是“从属连词+分词”形式,做伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一样。将逻辑主语带入: structure is indicated…逻辑上,我们只能说“此建筑物是教堂”这件事被揭示,不能说“建筑物”这个东西被揭示。比如,主动语态里,我们通常会说“研究揭示,人类得吃饭”,但不会只说“研究揭示人类”。被揭示的对象只能是完整的一件事情。

B. 同A,整句话字面意思为“建筑物被方位等东西揭示”。

C. Indicating that…是动名词做主语。动名词做主语,谓语动作应该用单数形式,这里用了were,属于语法错误。

D. as作为从属连词,后面只能加完整句子或者分词形式,不能直接加谓语动词,属于语法错误。

E. 正确。That引导主语从句,表明是“建筑物是教堂”这件事被揭示了。

5. 

Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.


(A) wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of

(B) wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of

(C) which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all

(D) which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely

(E) living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all


解析:

A. where引导定语从句修饰society,从句中they做主语,指代wasps。逻辑上,并不是“黄蜂”这个物种而是“社会”由女王蜂、工蜂这些社会角色组成。

B. 正确。consisting是分词形式做简化的定语从句修饰society。

C. which引导定语从句修饰某个名词,鉴于从句的谓语是means,说明它在修饰一个单数名词,但前面并没有出现过单数名词,属于语法错误。

D. 同C,which没有修饰对象。

E. and后面出现了完整句,主语it指代society,此时“黄蜂是群居黄蜂中的一种”和“社会由女性组成”这两件事并列。但逻辑上,“由女性组成”应该是society的一个特点,并不能和黄蜂的属性描述并列。注意,我们通常只能把同一个层级的东西并列,比如“小明很高,并且小明很帅”,但我们不能说“小明很高,并且地球是圆的”。

6.

Despite piles of evidence showing that insecticides in tropical rice cultivation were ineffective, it still remains the dominant pest-control tactic.


(A) insecticides in tropical rice cultivation were

(B) using insecticides in tropical rice cultivation as

(C) insecticide used in tropical rice cultivation was

(D) insecticide using in tropical rice cultivation to be

(E) insecticides in tropical rice cultivation are to be


解析:

整句话中主句的主语是it,逻辑上应该是指代杀虫剂,意为“杀虫剂依旧是一个控制害虫的主要方法”。所以划线部分出现的insecticide应该是单数形式,排除A,B,和E。

划线部分开始是show的宾语从句,D选项使得宾语从句中没有谓语动词,排除。所以,选C。


7.

Towing insurance provides protection against collision damage to your automobile while being attached, towed, or detached from a covered rental truck, or loaded onto, transported, or unloaded from a covered rental trailer.


(A) while being attached, towed, or detached from a covered rental truck, or loaded onto, transported,

(B) while you are attaching to, towing by, or detaching it from a covered rental truck or while it is loaded onto, transported,

(C) when attached to, towed by, or detached from a covered rental truck or when it is loaded onto, transported by, 

(D) while you being attached to, towed by, or detached from a covered rental truck or loaded onto, transported by, 

(E) when being attached to, towed by, or detached from a covered rental truck or loaded, transported,


解析:

A. while是从属连词,后面加doing,说明划线部分是伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致。我们将主语代入:while insurance is attached...很明显,不能是“保险”被拖拽,属于语意错误。

B. 正确。

C. when是从属连词,后面加done,说明划线部分是伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致——insurance。错误原因同A,不能是“保险”被拖拽。

D. while后面要加完整句或者分词形式,此选项中while后面没有谓语动词,属于语法错误。

E. 错误原因同A。


8. 

For protection from the summer sun, the Mojave lived in open-sided, flat-topped dwellings known as shades, each a roof of poles and arrow weed supported by posts set in a rectangle.


(A) each a roof of poles and arrow weed

(B) each a roof of poles and arrow weed that are being

(C) with each being a roof of poles and arrow weed

(D) with roofs of poles and arrow weed to be

(E) with roofs of poles and arrow weed that are


解析:

A. 正确。each是dwellings的同位语,each后面是简化的定语从句,还原后为:each(that is) a roof of…;supported是roof的简化定语从句。

B. that are being...为定语从句,修饰前面的一个复数名词。但逻辑上被支撑(supported by)的应该是房顶roof,而不是poles或者poles and weed,所以定从里的谓语动词应该是单数。

C. with为介词,逗号隔开的介词短语均为状语。所以此时划线部分修饰的是lived这个动作,和dwellings就没关系了。但逻辑上,后半句是在描述房子的特点,而不是“居住”这个动作的特点,所以划线部分作状语语意有误。

D. 划线部分作状语,错误同C。

E. 划线部分作状语,错误同C。


9.

The visionary who shaped New York City from the 1930s to the 1960s was Robert Moses, where urban renewal became voracious, with eminent domain often being used to snatch private property and destroy neighborhoods.


(A) The visionary who shaped New York City from the 1930s to the 1960s was Robert Moses, where urban renewal became voracious,

(B) Robert Moses, the visionary who shaped New York City from the 1930s to the 1960s under which urban renewal had become voracious, 

(C) Under Robert Moses, urban renewal became voracious, the visionary who shaped New York City from the 1930s to the 1960s,

(D) As the visionary who shaped New York City from the 1930s to the 1960s, urban renewal became voracious under Robert Moses,

(E) Under Robert Moses, the visionary who shaped New York City from the 1930s to the 1960s, urban renewal became voracious,


解析:

A. where引导定语从句,其先行词需要是一个地点名词。但很明显Robert Moses是一个人,不能用where修饰。

B. 整句话缺少谓语动词,语法有误。

C. “with eminent domain often being used…”是“with+名词+doing”的独立主格结构,修饰最近的谓语动作shape。此独立主格的意思为“国家征用权被用在了摧毁私有财产和社区上”,但它应该修饰“urban renewal became voracious(城市革新变得不好)”这件事,而不是“shaped New York City(修正城市)”这个事情。

D. as做介词,意为“作为”,此时选项的字面意思为“作为有远见的人,城市革新变得不好”,语意不通。

E. 正确。后半句的独立主格描述“城市革新变坏”的具体表现。

10.

At the beginning of the railroad era, in the second quarter of the nineteenth century, very few people believed in a locomotive having smooth wheels on a smooth track that it could pull cars around a curve or up more than merely a trifling grade.


(A) in a locomotive having smooth wheels on a smooth track that it could pull cars around a curve or up more than

(B) in a locomotive having smooth wheels and with a smooth track could pull cars around a curve or up more than 

(C) that a locomotive with smooth wheels and with a smooth track could pull cars around a curve or up more than 

(D) that a locomotive with smooth wheels on a smooth track could pull cars around a curve or more than up 

(E) that a locomotive with smooth wheels on a smooth track could pull cars around a curve or up more than


解析:

A. 宾语的核心词是locomotive,having…是修饰locomotive的定语,所以整句话的主干就是“人相信车”,语意不通。

B. 语意错误同A。

C. “with a track”和“with wheels”并列作locomotive的定语,但语意不合理。我们可以说“有轮子的火车头”,但不能说“有轨道的火车头”。

D. “on a track”作定语修饰wheels,意为“轨道上的轮子”,合理。但merely的意思为“仅仅”; more than merely意为“不仅仅”。整句话写成“火车头可以把车拉上一个不仅仅是微不足道的小坡”更合理。所以up应该放在more than前面。

E. 正确。


11.

Henry David Thoreau lived in the attic of his mother's house for most of his life, and even when he lived at Walden Pond rhapsodizing about the rewards of roughing it, often walking home for a slice of pie.


(A) and even when he lived at Walden Pond rhapsodizing about the rewards of roughing it, often walking

(B) and even when he was living at Walden Pond rhapsodizing about the rewards of roughing it, he often walked

(C) and even during the time when he was living at Walden Pond, rhapsodized about the rewards of roughing it, often walked

(D) but even when he was living at Walden Pond and rhapsodizing about the rewards of roughing it, often walking

(E) but even during the time when he lived at Walden Pond, rhapsodized about the rewards of roughing it, and often walked


解析:

rough it为习语,意为“在艰苦条件下生活”。

A. and身后的walking往前找没有合理的并列对象,属于语法错误。

B. 正确。“rhapsodizing about the rewards of roughing it”是伴随状语修饰live。整句话意为:Henry一生中大部分时间住在他妈妈的阁楼上,即使当他住在瓦尔登湖书写对自己艰苦生活的奖励的时候,他也经常会走回家去分一杯羹。

C. rhapsodized和walked两个谓语动词之间缺少连词,属于语法错误。

D. walking没有并列对象,错误同A。

E. rhapsodized和walked此时是并列关系,那么,和“住在阁楼”形成转折关系的就是“rhapsodized(书写)”这个动作了,此时字面意思为“之前一直住,即使后来不住了也书写东西”。但逻辑上,和“住在阁楼”形成转折关系的应该是“走回去”,描述“之前一直住,即使后来不住了也会经常回去”。


12.

To prevent themselves from becoming infested by certain caterpillars corn plants release fragrant chemicals that attract the caterpillars' natural enemy, parasitic wasps, and causing them to home in on the scent and deposit their eggs on the caterpillars' bodies, actions that lead to the demise of the caterpillars when the wasp larvae hatch and devour their hosts.


(A) corn plants release fragrant chemicals that attract the caterpillars' natural enemy, parasitic wasps, and causing them to

(B) corn plants release fragrant chemicals that attract the caterpillars' natural enemy, parasitic wasps, which then

(C) fragrant chemicals that attract the caterpillars4 natural enemy, parasitic wasps, are released by corn plants, which cause them to

(D) fragrant chemicals are released by corn plants that attract the caterpillars1 natural enemy, parasitic wasps, causing them to

(E) parasitic wasps, the caterpillars' natural enemy, are attracted to corn plants by the release of fragrant chemicals, which they then


解析:

A. “To prevent themselves from becoming infested by certain caterpillars”是整句话的目的状语;整句话主语为corn plants,谓语为release,宾语是chemicals。注意,状语和句子之间可以有逗号,也可以没有。此选项中,and身后的causing往前找没有并列对象,属于语法错误。

B. 正确。

C. 主语变为chemicals,但结合前面的目的状语,我们不能说“chemicals为了阻止自己被感染”。逻辑上应该是植物防止自己被感染。

D. 主语错误同C。

E. 主语错误同C。


13.

According to a new report by the surgeon general, women with less than a high school education had three times the likelihood that they would begin smoking as women who went to college.


(A) had three times the likelihood that they would begin smoking

(B) had three times the likelihood of beginning smoking

(C) were three times more likely to begin to smoke

(D) were three times more likely that they would begin to smoke

(E) were three times as likely to begin smoking


解析:

A. 主句抽主干:women(主)had(谓)likelihood(宾语),意为“女性有可能性”。结合前面的状语,整句话的字面意思为“根据研究发现,女性有可能性”。但逻辑上应该是“根据研究发现,女性有可能做什么事情”更合理。注:likelihood后的that从句为同位语从句。

B. 主干为“女性有可能性”,错误同A。

C. be likely to是助动词,整句话真正的谓语是begin to smoke。主干抽取为“女性有可能开始抽烟”。但表比较的时候,或者用more(比较级)...than,或者用as...as。没有more...as的用法。

D. 只有be likely to,没有be likely that的用法。

E. 正确。as和as搭配。


14.

Researchers said on Thursday that the source of a mysterious clump of hair found in the Yukon Territory was a North American bison and not from the elusive apelike Sasquatch, or bigfoot, said to haunt the woods of western Canada.


(A) Thursday that the source of a mysterious clump of hair found in the Yukon Territory was a North American bison and

(B) Thursday, a mysterious clump of hair found in the Yukon Territory belonged to a North American bison, but

(C) Thursday a mysterious clump of hair found in the Yukon Territory belongs to a North American bison,

(D) Thursday that a mysterious clump of hair found in the Yukon Territory is that of a North American bison

(E) Thursday that a mysterious clump of hair found in the Yukon Territory is from a North American bison and


解析:

A. and身后的from sth往前找没有介词短语和它并列。

B. 虽然宾语从句的连词“that”可以省略,但主干成分之间不能平白无故隔逗号。逗号一般是为了隔开主干和修饰,我们不能说“I, eat lunch”或者“I eat, lunch”。所以这里的逗号属于语法错误。

C. 逗号隔开的介词短语都是状语,此选项中的“not from Sasquatch(大脚野人)”作状语修饰belongs to,整句话字面意思为“不来自Sasquatch,神秘毛发属于bison(公牛)”。这个意思很奇怪,因为逻辑上“不来自Sasquatch”应该是说明毛发的特点,而不是修饰belongs to这个动作。

D. “not from Sasquatch”作状语,错误同C。

E. 正确。from bison 和not from Sasquatch并列作表语,描述主语clump的特点。


15.

The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.


(A)     years as a result of the removal of

(B) years as a result of removing

(C) years, resulting from the removing of

(D) years, which is a result of removing

(E) years, which is a result of the removal of


解析:

A. 正确。

B. removing the native fox population和the clearing of woodlands并列错误。removing the native fox population是动名词,而the clearing of woodlands是纯名词(因为纯名词才可以加定冠词the)。语法上,我们只能把纯名词和纯名词并列,动名词和动名词并列。

C. resulting from是伴随状语,其逻辑主语为“rabbit population”,但我们不能说“兔子的数量起因于移除”,应该是“兔子数量上升”这件事起因于移除。

D. which引导定语从句,必须修饰一个名词,但前面没有合理的修饰对象。

E. which错误同D。

16

Oaks preferring drier ones, pine trees thrive in relatively wet climates.


(A)   Oaks preferring drier ones, pine trees thrive in relatively wet climates.

(B) With oaks preferring drier ones, pine trees thrive in relatively wet climates.

(C) Whereas oaks prefer drier ones, with pine trees thriving in relatively wet climates.

(D) Pine trees thrive in relatively wet climates, whereas oaks prefer drier ones.

(E) Pine trees thriving in climates that are relatively wet ones, oaks prefer drier climates.


解析:

A. 前半句是独立主格(with + 名词 +doing/done,with可以省略)做状语,和主句构成修饰关系。但逻辑上,前后两句分别陈述两种植物的特点,没有修饰关系。

B. 前半句为独立主格修饰主句,语意错误同A。

C. 整句话没有主句,属于语法错误。

D. 正确。

E. 前半句为独立主格修饰主句,语意错误同A。


17.

Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.


(A)    Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress

(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed

(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing


解析:

A. based为过去分词,放在句首做伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致,为women。代入后:women are based on records(女人被基于记录),很明显,语意不对。

B. based...做伴随状语,语意错误同A。

C. 未划线部分出现了“and + that + 完整句”,由于and是并列连词,所以要求and前也得有一个that引导的完整句做相同成分。但前面只有定语从句,而定语从句是不完整的,所以未划线部分的从句往前找没有合理的并列对象,属于语法错误。

D. 正确。未划线部分的从句为宾语从句,和前面的宾语从句并列,做indicate的宾语。

E. and身前没有“that + 完整句”,属于语法错误。


18.

One automobile manufacturer has announced plans to increase the average fuel efficiency of its sport utility vehicles by 25 percent over the next five years, amounting to roughly five miles per gallon, and representing the first significant change in the fuel efficiency of any class of passenger vehicle in almost two decades.


(A) amounting to roughly five miles per gallon, and representing

(B) amounting to roughly five miles per gallon, and it would represent

(C) an increase that would amount to roughly five miles per gallon and it would represent

(D) an increase that would amount to roughly five miles per gallon and would represent

(E) which is an increase amounting to roughly five miles per gallon, representing


解析:

A. amounting...为伴随状语,其逻辑主语与主句主语一致,为manufacturer。但“manufacturer amounts to 5 miles/gallon(制造商总计5英里每加仑)”不合逻辑,属于语意错误。

B. amounting...做伴随状语,错误同A。

C. an increase是同位语,同位前面的动词increase。that开始是increase的定语从句;and后出现了完整句,说明“it would represent change”和前面的完整句“manufacturer has announced plans”并列。但同等级的事情才可并列。很明显,“代表一个改变”是increase的特点,应该和“总计5英里每加仑”并列,而不是和“制造商宣布计划”这件事并列。

D. 正确。

E. which引导定语从句,修饰名词。但前面没有合理的修饰对象。

19

Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.


(A) shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their

(B) shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their

(C) shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,

(D) they showed that in societies where little salt is consumed,

(E) they showed that in societies where they consume little salt, their


解析:

A. they没有合理指代,它应该指整句话中的一个复数名词,但没有这样一个合理的名词存在。

B. societies在其身后的定语从句中做主语,代入为“societies have consumed little salt”。但能发出consume这个动作的只能是人,不能是society。their也没有合理的指代。

C. 正确。

D. they指代studies,可以接受。但和C相比,两句话只在时态上有差异,studies的第一个谓语动词用了现在完成时,第二个谓语保持时态一致更合理。

E. where身后的they没有合理指代,错误同A;时态问题错误同D。


20

Britain cut its base lending rate by a quarter of a point to its lowest level in 22 years, giving a boost of confidence to investors and it signaled that European rates will continue to move down even as they move up in the United States.


(A) investors and it signaled that European rates will continue to move down even as they move

(B) investors and signaling that rates would continue to move down in Europe even as they move

(C) investors and it signaled that rates in Europe would continue to move down despite the fact of their moving

(D) investors, which signaled that European rates would continue to move down in spite of their moving

(E) investors, signaling that rates in Europe will continue to move down just as they move


解析:

A. and身后出现了完整句“it signaled that...”,说明它在和前面的完整句“Britain cut its base lending rate”并列。但逻辑上,signal一件事和give a boost of confidence是同一个层级的事情,均为英国降低利率带来的影响,它俩并列更合理。所以,此选项有语意问题。

此外,they是同物指代,指前面出现过的European rates。此时,as引导的从句的字面意思为“欧洲的利率在美国会上升”,语意有误。

B. 正确。giving和signaling并列,做主句的伴随状语。they指代前面的rates。

C. and身后并列对象错误,同A。

D. which引导定语从句,修饰名词,但前面没有合理的修饰对象。

E. signaling此时做伴随状语修饰最近的谓语动词giving,但这两个动作是并列、平等的关系,并不存在修饰、从属的关系。

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